NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4: Agriculture YouTube Lecture Handouts

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NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4: Agriculture

Chapter 4: Agriculture

  • 2/3rd people in agriculture
  • Food grains
  • Raw material for industry

Primitive Farming

  • In small areas
  • Primitive tools – hoe, sticks
  • Monsoon dependent
  • Slash and burn agriculture
  • ‘Milpa’ in Mexico
  • ‘Masole’ in Central Africa
  • ‘Conuco’ in Venzuela
  • ‘Roca’ in Brazil
  • ‘Ladang’ in Indonesia
  • ‘Ray’ in Vietnam
  • Bewar ′ or ′ Dahiya ′ in Madhya Pradesh
  • ‘Podu’ or ‘Penda’ in Andhra Pradesh
  • ′ Pama Dabi ′ or ′ Koman ′ or Bringa ′ in Orissa
  • ‘Kumari’ in Western Ghats
  • ‘Valre’ or ‘Waltre’ in SE Rajasthan
  • ‘Khil’ in the Himalayan belt
  • ‘Kuruwa’ in Jharkhand
  • ‘Jhumming’ in the North-eastern region
  • Pamlou in Manipur
  • Dipa in Bastar district of Chhattisgarh, Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Intensive Subsistence Farming

  • High population
  • Labor intensive
  • More chemicals and irrigation
  • Small landholdings- division of land

Commercial Farming

  • High HYV, fertilizer, chemicals
  • Large land
  • Mechanized
  • Rice - commercial crop in Haryana and Punjab; in Orissa- subsistence

Plantation Cropping

  • Single crop over large area
  • interface of agriculture and industry
  • Large land
  • Capital intensive
  • Migrant laborers
  • Tea in Assam and N. Bengal
  • Coffee in Karnataka
  • Good transport to reach market – Market oriented

Paddy (3 Crops in Assam, Bihar & Orissa - Aus, Aman and Boro) , Maize, Jowar, Bajra, Tur, Moong, Urad, Cotton, Jute, Groundnut and Soyabean

Crops and Seasons in India

Rice

  • Largest after China
  • Kharif crop
  • High temperature (above 25°C) and high humidity
  • Annual rainfall above 100 cm (if less – irrigation)
  • Plains of north and NE India, coast & deltaic region
  • By canal & tubewell in Raj, Punjab, Haryana & west UP

Wheat

  • Second after rice
  • North and NW India
  • Rabi crop
  • Cool growing season
  • Bright sunshine at ripening
  • Rain 50 - 75 cm
  • 2 zones - Ganga-Satluj plains in NW & black soil in Deccan
  • Punjab, Haryana, UP, Bihar, Rajasthan and parts of MP

Millets

  • Jowar, bajra, ragi – coarse grains - High nutrition
  • Jowar – 3rd in area & production, rain-fed, in moist areas
  • Jowar – Largest producer is Maharashtra; Karnataka, AP & MP
  • Bajra - sandy & shallow black soil
  • Bajra – Largest is Rajasthan; then UP, Maharashtra, Gujarat & Haryana
  • Ragi – Dry, grows on red, black, sandy, loamy and shallow black soils; has iron, calcium & roughage
  • Ragi – Largest is Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, also in HP, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Jharkhand and Arunachal Pradesh

Maize

  • Food and fodder
  • Kharif crop
  • Temperature 21°C to 27°C
  • Old alluvial soil
  • In Bihar - grown in rabi season also.
  • Karnataka, UP, Bihar, AP & MP

Pulses

  • Largest producer and consumer in world
  • Protein source
  • Tur (arhar) , urad, moong, masur, peas and gram
  • All leguminous (nitrogen fixation) except tur
  • Can grow in dry conditions
  • MP, UP, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Karnataka

Sugarcane

  • Tropical & subtropical crop
  • Hot and humid climate
  • Temperature of 21°C to 27°C
  • Annual rainfall between 75cm-100 cm
  • India second after Brazil
  • UP, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, AP, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana

Oilseeds

  • Largest producer in the world
  • 12 % of total area
  • Groundnut, mustard, coconut, sesamum (til) , soyabean, castor seeds, cotton seeds, linseed and sunflower
  • Groundnut – kharif, accounts for 50 % of oilseeds, Largest is AP then T. Nadu, Karnataka & Gujarat
  • Linseed & Mustard – Rabi (mainly Maharashtra)
  • Sesamum - kharif crop in north and rabi crop in south India.
  • Castor seed is grown both as rabi and kharif crop.

Tea

  • Plantation
  • Beverage crop
  • Now owned by Indians
  • Tropical and sub-tropical climates
  • Deep and fertile well-drained soil, rich in humus and organic matter
  • Warm and moist frost-free climate all through the year
  • Frequent showers evenly year round for growth of tender leaves.
  • Assam, hills of Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri in WB, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
  • HP, Uttaranchal, Meghalaya, Andhra Pradesh and Tripura
  • Largest producer as well as exporter

Coffee

  • 4 % of world production
  • Arabica variety brought from Yemen
  • Started in Babubudan hills
  • Nilgiri in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu

Horticulture

  • Largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world
  • 13 % of world՚s vegetables
  • Mangoes of Maharashtra, AP, UP, WB
  • Oranges of Nagpur and Cherrapunjee (Meghalaya)
  • Bananas of Kerala, Mizoram, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu
  • Litchi and guava of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar
  • Pineapples of Meghalaya
  • Grapes of Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra
  • Apples, pears, apricots and walnuts of J & K and HP

Rubber

  • Equatorial crop
  • 5th in world in natural rubber production
  • Moist and humid climate
  • Rainfall of more than 200 cm
  • Temperature above 25°C
  • Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andaman and Nicobar islands and Garo hills of Meghalaya

Fibers

  • Cotton – 3rd largest in world, dry black soil of Deccan, high temp, light rain, 210 frost free days, kharif, 6 - 8 months to mature; Maharashtra, Gujarat, MP, Karnataka, AP, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana and UP
  • Jute – golden fiber, well-drained soil, high temp. , West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Orissa and Meghalaya – high cost & now shift to nylon
  • Hemp
  • Silk – Silkworms – sericulture

Reforms

  • Collectization
  • Consolidation of holdings – 1st Five Year Plan
  • Cooperation
  • Abolition of zamindari
  • Green & White Revolution – but concentrated to few areas
  • Crop insurance & Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS)
  • Grameen banks
  • Cheap loans & Kisan credit cards
  • Gandhiji- Gram Swarajya
  • Vinoba Bhave – Bhoodan- Gramdam (bloodless revolution) – 80 acre land by Ram Chandra Reddy t0 80 landless laborers

Agriculture - Role in Economy

  • Share in GDP declining since 1951
  • Employment to 263 million people (with > 50 % as agri. laborers)
  • Establishment of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)
  • Agricultural universities
  • Veterinary services and animal breeding centers
  • Horticulture development; R & D

Issues

  • Farmers facing international competition
  • Decrease in subsidies
  • Decrease in import duties on agricultural products
  • Farmers withdrawing investment from agriculture

Food Security

  • To the remote areas
  • By Buffer stock & PDS (at subsidized price by ration shops) by FCI
  • FCI provides Minimum Support Price to farmers
  • Food to common man at affordable rate
  • Increase food production
  • Free trade in grains for massive employment
  • Shift from food crops to fruits & vegetables – led to decrease in land under crop
  • Fertilizers shows good result but now are culprits of land degradation
  • Unsustainable pumping – reduced water in aquifers

Globalization

  • Cotton belts – attracted Britishers (Manchester & Liverpool)
  • Champaran – farmers forced to grow indigo & no foodgrains for families
  • Improve marginal farmers
  • Gene Revolution – genetic engineering – hybrid seeds
  • Organic farming – neem leaves
  • Diverse crops from cereal to high value crops like fruits, medicinal herbs, flowers, vegetables (import cereal & export like Italy & Israel)
  • Bio-diesel crops like jatropha and jojoba need much less irrigation than rice or sugarcane

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