NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 5: Mineral and Energy Resources YouTube Lecture Handouts

Doorsteptutor material for ICSE/Class-10 is prepared by world's top subject experts: get questions, notes, tests, video lectures and more- for all subjects of ICSE/Class-10.

Get video tutorial on: Examrace YouTube Channel

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 5: Mineral and Energy Resources

Chapter 5: Minerals & Energy Resources

Why We Need Minerals?

  • Everything from pin to ship
  • Toothpaste - silica, limestone, aluminum oxide and various phosphate
  • Fluoride – reduce cavities
  • Toothpaste are white – titanium oxide (from rutile, ilmenite & anatase)
  • Toothpaste sparkle – mica
  • Tube – made of plastics from petroleum
  • Body requires 0.3 % minerals of total nutrients
  • Homogenous, naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure
  • Hard as diamond & soft as talc (Mohs scale – measure hardness)

Mineral Occur as ORE

  • Rocks are combination of minerals
  • Colors, hardness, crystal forms, lustre and density
  • Igneous and metamorphic rocks minerals – in cracks, crevices, faults or joints.
  • Smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger are called lodes
  • Sedimentary rocks - occur in beds or layers – gypsum, potash & sodium salt
  • Alluvial deposits in valley floor; placer – gold, silver, tin, platinum
  • Ocean water – salt, magnesium, bromine
  • Coal mining – Jowai & Cherrapunjee by long narrow tunnel – Rat hole mining
  • Sedimentary rock in Assam and Gujarat – petroleum deposit
Mineral Occur as ORE for Geography Image - 1

Iron Ore – Ferrous

  • Magnetite is finest – 70 % iron – has magnetic property
  • Hematite – lower iron (50 - 60 %) – industrial use
  • Top producer – Karnataka > Orissa > Chhattisgarh
  • Orissa (Badampahar mines in Mayurbhanj & Kendujhar) -Jharkhand belt (Gua & Noamundi mines in Singhbhum) : Hematite
  • Durg-Bastar (Bailadila -14 deposits) -Chandrapur belt lies in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra - Hematite - Exported to Japan & South Korea via Vishakapatnam port.
  • Bellary-Chitradurga-Chikmaglur-Tumkur belt in Karnataka - Kudermukh – 100 % export unit and amongst largest in the world. Transported as slurry by pipe to port near Mangalore.
  • Maharashtra (Ratnagiri) -Goa belt - very high quality & exported by Marmagao port

Manganese – Ferrous

  • Used in steel and ferro-manganese alloy
  • 10 kg Mn used to make 1 ton steel
  • Used on bleaching powder, insecticide & paint
  • Orissa (1/3rd of total) > MP > Karnataka – production

Copper – Non-Ferrous

  • India is deficient
  • Mainly used in cables, conductors & chemical Ind.
  • Balaghat Mines (MP) – 52 % production
  • Singhbhum in Jharkhand
  • Khetri in Rajasthan

Bauxite – Non-Ferrous

  • Ore of Aluminum
  • Decomposition of rocks rich in aluminum silicates
  • Light, conductive and malleable
  • Highest production by Orissa (45 %- max. in Panchpatmali in Koratpur) , then Gujarat & Jharkhand
  • Amarkantak plateau, Maikal hills and plateau region of Bilaspur-Katni
  • Napoleon III – used button & utensils of Al (lower people used gold & silver) , then 30 years later Al used by beggars of France

Mica – Non-Metallic

  • Layered into sheets
  • Di-electric strength, low power loss factor, insulating properties and resistance to high voltage
  • Northern edge of the Chottanagpur plateau.
  • Koderma, Gaya – Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand
  • Ajmer – Rajasthan
  • Nellore – Andhra Pradesh

Limestone – Rock Minerals

  • Carbonates and sedimentary rocks
  • Used in cement ind. & smelting of iron ore
  • Production order – AP > MP > Raj.

Mining & Conservation

  • Mining – killer industry
  • Pulmonary diseases
  • Water contamination
  • Slurry waste
  • Collapse of roof, inundation and fires
  • Workable deposits – only 1 % of crust
  • Replenishment < Consumption
  • Finite and non-renewable resource
  • Recycling of metals
  • Energy saved is energy produced

Energy Resources

  • Conventional – firewood & cattle dung cake (rural -70 % energy) , coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity
  • Non-Conventional - solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, biogas & atomic energy

Coal – Fossil Fuel

  • Formed by compression of plants
  • Peat – low carbon, high moisture (decaying in swamps)
  • Lignite – low grade, brown – soft and high moisture (Neyveli – T. Nadu)
  • Bituminous – Buried deep and higher temperature – in commercial use – smelting in blast furnace
  • Anthracite – High quality

Coal Deposits

  • Gondwana (> 200 mya) : Damodar valley (West Bengal-Jharkhand) , Jharia, Raniganj, Bokaro, Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha valleys
  • Tertiary (< 50 mya) : NE states - Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.
  • Bulky – so heavy ind. & thermal plant near coalfields

Petroleum

  • Nodal industry for fertilizer, textile etc.
  • Called liquid gold
  • With anticlines and fault traps in tertiary rocks
  • In Anticlines - oil is trapped in crest of upfold
  • Fault trap b/w porous & non-porous rock (gas over oil)
  • 63 % production - Mumbai High, 18 % from Gujarat and 16 % from Assam
  • Ankeleshwar - Gujarat
  • Assam - oldest oil producing state (Digboi, Naharkatiya and Moran-Hugrijan)

Natural Gas

  • Clean energy
  • With or without petroleum
  • Low CO2 emission
  • Krishna- Godavari basin, Mumbai High, Gulf of Cambay & A & N Is.
  • Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) for vehicles to replace liquid fuels
  • 1700 km pipeline: Hazira (Guj.) -Bijaipur (MP) – Jagdishpur (UP) links Mumbai High and Bassien
  • HBJ - Gas daily to 3 power houses at Kawas (Gujarat) , Anta (Rajasthan) and Auraiya (U. P.) & 6 fertilizer plants at Bijapur, Sawai Madhopur, Jagdishpur, Shahjahanpur, Aonla and Babrala

Electricity

  • Thermal – Use coal, petrol & gas
  • Hydel – Bhakra Nangal, Damodar etc.
  • Nuclear – Uranium & thorium form Jharkhand & Aravallis; monazite from Kerala (thorium)

Non-Conventional

  • Solar – Sun – Madhapur in Bhuj (sterilize milk can)
  • Wind - Tamil Nadu (Nagarcoil to Madurai) , AP, Karnataka, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra, Lakshadweep & Jaisalmer
  • Biogas – Gobar gas – kerosene, dung cake, charcoal
  • Tidal – Gulf of Kuchchh
  • Geothermal - Parvati valley near Manikaran in HP & Puga Valley, Ladakh

Tough Go! Race to be 100 % Renewable

  • Sweden – Aim to be 1st nation to 100 % fossil fuel free
  • Costa Rica - carbon-neutral by 2021
  • Nicaragua – 90 % by 2020
  • Scotland – mainly wind – meet 97 % household needs
  • Germany – leads in solar – met 78 % household needs

Developed by: