NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6: Manufacturing Industries YouTube Lecture Handouts

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NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6: Manufacturing Industries

Chapter 6: Manufacturing Industries

Economic Strength is Measured by Manufacturing

Economics Strength is Measured by Manufacturing for Geograph …

Factors Affecting Industrial Location

Factors Affecting Industrial Location for Geography Image - …

Classification of Industries

Based on

  • Raw Material: Agro-based, mineral based
  • Role: Key/Main, consumer
  • Investment: Small scale, cottage or large scale
  • Ownership: Private, public, joint or cooperatives
  • Weight: Heavy or light

Textile Industry

  • 14 % of industrial prod.
  • 35 million people employed (next to agriculture)
  • 24 % foreign exchange earning
  • 4 % to GDP
  • Cotton mills (1st in 1854 - Mumbai) now 1962 mills with 80 % in private – handloom, powerloom
  • Previously – Maharashtra & Gujarat (cotton, mkt. & port)
  • Spinning (Maha, Guj & T. Nadu) ; weaving (khadi-charkha) decentralized
  • Export yarn – Japan, US, UK, France, Singapore, Sri Lanka
  • 2nd largest spindles next to China

Textile Industry

  • 14 % of industrial prod.
  • 35 million people employed (next to agriculture)
  • 24 % foreign exchange earning
  • 4 % to GDP
  • Cotton mills (1st in 1854 - Mumbai) now 1962 mills with 80 % in private – handloom, powerloom
  • Previously – Maharashtra & Gujarat (cotton, mkt. & port)
  • Spinning (Maha, Guj & T. Nadu) ; weaving (khadi-charkha) decentralized
  • Export yarn – Japan, US, UK, France, Singapore, Sri Lanka
  • 2nd largest spindles next to China

Jute Industry

  • Largest producer of jute and jute goods
  • 2nd exporter after Bangladesh
  • Most mills in W. Bengal – Hugli river (1st at Rishra)
  • Partition – mills in India, production in Bangladesh
  • Why good location? Inexpensive water, cheap labour, producing areas, transport network, banking and insurance
  • Support 2.6 lakh directly & 40 lakh indirectly
  • Competition with synthetic fiber
  • 2005- National Jute Policy
  • Mkt- U. S. A. , Canada, Russia, United Arab Republic, U. K. and Australia
  • Env. Friendly and biodegradable

Sugar Industry – Gur & Khandsari

  • RM – bulky
  • Transport reduces sucrose
  • 60 % in UP & Bihar
  • Shifting to south & west – Maharashtra – higher sucrose, cooperatives & cool climate for long crushing season

Iron & Steel Industry

  • Production & consumption is index of development
  • Iron: coking coal: manganese = 4: 2: 1
  • 2016 – India 4th in crude oil production
  • Largest producer of sponge iron
  • Per capita consumption was 32 kg
  • China- largest producer & consumer
  • Max. conc. in Chotanagpur plateau (high grade,

Cheap labor, low cost)

  • Poor performance – low productivity, erratic power,

High cost of coking coal, poor infrastructure

Iron and Steel Industry for Geography

Aluminum Industry

  • 2nd after iron and steel
  • Light
  • Resistant to corrosion
  • Good conductor
  • Malleable
  • Strong when mixed with other metals
  • Bauxite – RM – bulky & red
  • 8 plants – NALCO & BALCO (W. Bengal) , Kerala, UP, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, T. Nadu

Chemical Industry

  • 3 % of GDP
  • 3rd largest in Asia
  • 12th in world
  • Inorganic – H2SO4, synthetic fiber, soda ash, alkalies, soap, detergent
  • Organic: Petrochemical, rubber, plastic, dyes, pharma, drugs

Fertilizer Industry

  • NPK
  • Potash is imported
  • 3rd largest in nitrogenous fertilizer in world
  • 10 PSU & 1 cooperative (Hazira, Gujarat)
  • Green revolution & land degradation
  • Neem coated Urea – slow dissolution

Cement Industry

  • 1st in 1904 – Chennai
  • Expanded after 1989 – decontrol of price & distribution
  • Large & mini-plants
  • Construction
  • Meet local demands

Automobile Industry

  • Jump in 15 years
  • FDI
  • Delhi, Jamshedpur, Pune, Indore, Hyderabad, Bangalore

ICT – Software parks, BPOs

Industrial Pollution

  • Air pollution – smoke, toxic gases (Bhopal gas tragedy)
  • Noise pollution
  • Thermal pollution – hot water in rivers, birth defects & cancers (effluents)
  • Water pollution – discharge in rivers

Control of Pollution

  • 1 liter discharge pollute 8 times quantity of fresh water
  • Reuse & recycle water
  • Harvest rainwater
  • Treat effluents going in water
  • Treatment types
    • Primary: mechanical – grinding, sedimentation
    • Secondary: biological
    • Tertiary: recycle waste water
  • Overdrawing of ground water – to be regulated (energy efficiency)
  • NTPC – ISO EMS 14001 – proactive approach preserve env. , minimize waste, green belts, decrease pollution & monitoring

Manishika