NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 7: Lifelines of National Economy YouTube Lecture Handouts

Glide to success with Doorsteptutor material for CBSE/Class-7 : get questions, notes, tests, video lectures and more- for all subjects of CBSE/Class-7.

Get video tutorial on: Examrace YouTube Channel

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 7: Lifelines of National Economy

Means of Transport – Movement

Transport - Movement for Geography Image - 1

Roadways

  • Largest in world with 2.3 million km

Why roads are more feasible?

  • Cheaper construction rate
  • Can traverse dissected topography
  • On higher gradients
  • Economical
  • Door to door service
  • As feeder to other transport

Road Density (Length of road per 100 km2)

Types of Roads

  • Golden Quadrilateral/East – West (Silchar to Porbander) & North – South (Srinagar to Kanyakumari)
  • National Highways – Maintained by CPWD (Sher Shah Suri – Delhi Amritsar is NH1; NH 8 – Delhi-Mumbai; NH-7 – Varanasi Kanyakumari)
  • State Highways – by PWD
  • District Highways – by Zila Parishad
  • Other/Rural Roads – PM Gramin Sadak Yojana
  • Border Roads – North, NE & NW India
  • Metalled – All weather (concrete, bitumen & coal)
  • Unmetalled – half of the total

Railways

  • Integrating since last 150 years
  • It is largest PSU in India
  • 1st train – 1853 – Mumbai to Thane
  • Broad, Meter & narrow gauge
  • Plains, high density, agricultural area
  • Difficult – in Mountains, deserts & landslide areas
  • Diamond Quadrilateral (high speed rail network)

Pipelines

  • Gas/oil/solid
  • Refineries – Barauni, Mathura, Panipat
  • Initial cost is high, running cost is low
  • Oil (Upper Assam to Kanpur) via Guwahati, Barauni & Allahabad
  • From Salaya (Guj.) to Jalandhar (Punjab) via Viramgam, Mathura, Delhi, Sonipat
  • From Hazira (Guj.) to Jagdishpur (UP) via Vijaipur (MP)

Waterways

  • Cheapest
  • Fuel efficient and environment friendly
  • 95 % trade in volume & 68 % in value by sea
  • Coastline – 7516 km (handle 95 % foreign trade)
  • Kandla (after 1947, to relieve Mumbai) as Karachi went to Pak.
  • Mumbai – Biggest, natural and sheltered harbor
  • Jawaharlal Nehru Port to decongest Mumbai
  • Marmagao (export iron) from Goa
  • New Mangalore (Karnataka) – export iron from Kudremukh
  • Kochi – entrance of lagoon with natural harbor
Waterways for Geography for Image - 2

Waterways

  • Tuticorin – Natural harbor, Tamil Nadu
  • Chennai – oldest artificial harbor (next to Mumbai in cargo)
  • Vishakhapatnam – deepest landlocked (iron export)
  • Paradip – Odisha (iron export)
  • Kolkata – inland riverine port – tidal port (Haldia to decongest Kolkata)
  • National Waterways
  • Sagar Mala Project
  • NW -1: On Ganga b/w Allahabad & Haldia
  • NW -2: Brahmaputra b/w Sadiya and Dhubri
  • NW-3: West Coast Canal in Kerala

Airways

  • Fastest
  • Cover difficult terrain
  • Nationalized in 1953
  • UDAN (Ude Desh Ka Aam Naagrik)

Communication

  • Postal network – largest in world
  • Largest telecom in Asia (STD, mobiles)
  • Mass Communication – Radio, TV, newspaper, DD
  • Largest producer of feature films in world

International Trade

  • Exports & Imports (EXIM policy)
  • Balance of trade (favorable or unfavorable)
  • Most trades – Mineral fuels & gold
  • Highest exports – petroleum product & precious stones
  • Highest Imports – China > USA > Saudi Arabia
  • Highest Exports – USA > UAE > Hong Kong
  • Tourism - Revenue

Developed by: