NCERT Class 11 Geography Part 1 Chapter 5: Minerals and Rocks YouTube Lecture Handouts

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NCERT Class 11 Geography Part 1 Chapter 5: Minerals and Rocks

Elements & Minerals

Table of Elements and Minerals of Minerals and Rocks
SL No.ElementsBy Weight (%)
Elemnts and Mineralsof Minerals and Rocks

Physical Characteristics

  • External crystal form - arrangement
  • Cleavage – tendency to break
  • Fracture – irregular breaking of crystals
  • Lustre – appearance – metallic, silky
  • Color – due to impurities
  • Streak – color of ground powder (malachite is green & has green streak, fluorite is purple or green but has white streak)
  • Transparency – or translucent or opaque
  • Structure – fine, medium or coarse
  • Hardness – moh scale (1-talc and 10 is diamond)
  • Specific gravity - ratio between the weight of a given object and weight of an equal volume of water

6 Basic Minerals

6 Basic Minerals of Minerals and Rocks


  • Metallic – metal
  • Precious – gold, silver, platnium
  • Ferrous – Iron mixed to form steel
  • Non-ferrous – Cu, Pb, Zn, Sn, Al
  • Non-Metallic – no metal, sulphur, phosphate and nitrate - cement


  • Aggregate of minerals
  • Granite (hard) , soapstone (soft)
  • Gabbro (black) , quartzite (white)
  • Petrology – science of rocks
  • Feldspar and Quartz are common rocks
  • 3 types – Igneous, Sedimentary & Metamorphic

Types of Rocks

Rock Cycle

Rock Cycle for Minerals and Rocks

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