NCERT Class 12 Geography Part 1 Chapter 3: Population Composition YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Sex Composition

  • Some nations: male/female x 1000
  • India – female/male x 1000
  • Sex ratio – information about women (female foeticide, female infanticide and domestic violence against women)
  • More women in population does not always mean better employment – t can be migration of men to other areas for employment
  • Females have a biological advantage over males as they tend to be more resilient than males yet this advantage is cancelled out by the social disadvantages and discriminations that they face.
  • World – 990 females/1000 males (Latvia – 1187 females/1000 males while UAE 468 females/1000 males)
  • The sex ratio is favourable for females in 139 countries of the world and unfavourable for them in the remaining 72 countries listed by the United Nations. In general, Asia has a low sex ratio.
  • Countries like China, India, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Afghanistan have a lower sex ratio.

Age Structure

  • Working Population 15 - 59 years
  • Old population – healthcare
  • High young population implies high BR

Age Sex Pyramid

A Age Sex Pyramid
  • The age-sex structure of a population refers to the number of females and males in different age groups. A population pyramid is used to show the age-sex structure of the population.
  • The shape of the population pyramid reflects the characteristics of the population.
  • The left side shows the percentage of males while the right side shows the percentage of women in each age group.
  • Expanding: high BR – Nigeria, Bangladesh Mexico
  • Constant: BR = DR as Australia
  • Declining: Low BR and DR as in Japan
  • Higher life expectancy leads to higher old age population

Rural and Urban Population

  • The age-sex-occupational structure, density of population and level of development vary between rural and urban areas.
  • The rural and urban differences in sex ratio in Canada and West European countries like Finland are just the opposite of those in African and Asian countries like Zimbabwe and Nepal respectively. In Western countries, males outnumber females in rural areas and females outnumber the males in urban areas.
  • Farming in Canada, US and developed countries is also highly mechanised and remains largely a male occupation.
  • By contrast the sex ratio in Asian urban areas remains male dominated due to the predominance of male migration. Shortage of housing, high cost of living, paucity of job opportunities and lack of security in cities, discourage women to migrate from rural to urban areas.


  • Proportion of literate population of a country in an indicator of its socio-economic development as it reveals the standard of living, social status of females, availability of educational facilities and policies of government
  • India – literacy rate denotes the percentage of population above 7 years of age, who is able to read, write and have the ability to do arithmetic calculations with understanding.

Occupational Structure

  • Agriculture, forestry, fishing and mining are classified as primary activities
  • manufacturing as secondary
  • transport, communication and other services as tertiary
  • jobs related to research and developing ideas as quaternary activities
  • only a developed economy with industries and infrastructure can accommodate more workers in the secondary, tertiary and quaternary sector. If the economy is still in the primitive stages, then the proportion of people engaged in primary activities world be high