NCERT Class 12 Practical Geography Chapter 5 Field Surveys

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Field Surveys

Field Surveys
  • Similarly, information has to be gathered at the local level by conducting primary surveys for generating information. The primary surveys are also called field surveys. They are an essential component of geographic enquiry enhance our understanding about patterns of spatial distributions, their associations and relationships at the local level
  • Facilitate collection of local level information
  • Understand problems in depth
  • Possible by Observation

Field Survey Procedure

Field Survey Procedure
  • Define problem – title and subtitle
  • Objectives - outline of the survey, acquisition of data and analysis methods
  • Scope – geographical area, timeframes and themes
  • Tools and Techniques – Recorded & published data; Field Observation; measurement (measuring tape, pH meter) ) ; interview
  • (Listing of households, persons, landholdings in the survey area can be done using the official records or electoral rolls available with the village panchayat or the revenue officials. Similarly, essential physical features, like relief, drainage, vegetation, land use and cultural features, like settlements, transport and communication lines, irrigation infrastructure, etc. can be traced out from the topographical maps)
  • (Observation - sketch or a notional map of the survey area can be prepared based on reconnaissance survey. This kind of exercise also helps in getting oneself introduced with the area as each feature needs to be observed carefully for locating them in the sketch.
  • Also sketch and photography
  • Interview – tools (questionnaire or schedule) , basic information (location, area) , coverage, units of study, sample design and cautions (sensitive activity)
  • Compilation and Computation - Notes, field sketches, photographs, case studies
  • Cartographic Applications - mapping and drawing of diagrams
  • Presentations - tables, charts, statistical inferences, maps and references

Case Studies – Where and What?

Case Studies – Where and What?
  • in low rainfall and agriculturally less productive regions, droughts form a major topic of study
  • Assam, Bihar, West Bengal – Floods
  • Air pollution – Delhi

1. Groundwater Change

2. Environmental Pollution

3. Soil Degradation

4. Poverty

5. Droughts and Floods

6. Energy Issues

7. Land Use Survey and Change Detection.

  • Be courteous
  • Develop friendly attitude
  • Ask questions
  • Avoid asking the questions that may either hurt the feelings
  • Do not make any promises
  • Record each and every detail as given by the respondent

Poverty – Case Study

Poverty – Case Study
  • Problem: Drought, as commonly understood, is a condition of climatic dryness that is severe enough to reduce soil moisture and water below the minimum limit necessary for sustaining plant, animal and human life. Hot dry winds and may be followed by damaging floods. Any lack of water for the normal needs of agriculture, livestock, industry, or human population. Societies that are more developed and economically diversified can better adjust to a drought and can recover more quickly. Crop failures cause a chain reaction of human suffering (hunger and malnutrition) and economic difficulties – starvation death and suicides
  • Objective – identify areas, first-hand experience & drought preparedness
  • Coverage – spatial (districts) , temporal (recurring or one time – compare across years) and thematic aspects (agricultural production and crop land use, rainfall variability and vegetation status)


  • Secondary information – Daily weather reports, District Gazetteers, Census Handbooks, Statistical Abstracts
  • Maps - 1: 50,000 - identification and mapping of the perennial and nonperennial water bodies, settlements, land use
  • Observation – Target objects and process, photographs and sketches
  • Measurement – Khasra number, village boundaries
  • Interview - structured questionnaire, amount of rainfall received, rainy days, sowing, watering, nature of crops, livestock and fodder, domestic water supply, healthcare, rural credit and employment and antipoverty programs – rate on scale 1 to 5

Compilation and Computation

  • Data Entry
  • Verification and Consistency Checks – to check data correctness
  • Computation of Indices
  • Visual Presentation
  • Thematic Mapping
  • Statistical Analysis
  • Tabulation

Report Writing

appropriate illustrations, including maps, diagrams, graphs, photographs, sketches.

Drought – Case Study Belgaum, Karnataka

Case Study Belgaum, Karnataka

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