NCERT Class 12 Geography of India Chapter 1 Population Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition YouTube Lecture Handouts Part 1

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NCERT Class 12 Geography of India Chapter 1: Population Distribution, Density, Growth & Composition

Title: Population Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition

  • China is the most populous nation with 1028 million people
  • India՚s population is larger than the total population of North America, South America and Australia put together
  • Pressure on limited resources and increases socio-economic problems
  • UP Has highest population followed by Maharashtra Bihar
  • U. P. , Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh along with Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Karnataka and Gujarat, together account for about 76 per cent of the total population of the country.
  • Uneven spatial distribution of population in India suggests a close relationship between population and physical, socioeconomic and historical factors. Climate along with terrain and availability of water largely determines the pattern of the population distribution. Consequently, we observe that the North Indian Plains, deltas and Coastal Plains have higher proportion of population than the interior districts of southern and central Indian States, Himalayas, some of the north eastern and the western states. Development of irrigation (Rajasthan) , availability of mineral and energy resources (Jharkhand) and development of transport network (Peninsular States) have resulted in moderate to high proportion of population in areas which were previously very thinly populated
  • Evolution of settled agriculture and agricultural development; pattern of human settlement; development of transport network, industrialisation and urbanisation. It is observed that the regions falling in the river plains and coastal areas of India have remained the regions of larger population concentration

Population Share Statewise

Population Share Statewise

Growth of Population

  • % decadal change from 2001 to 2011 in
  • Dadra and Nagar Haveli is 51.7 %
  • Daman and Diu is 41.5 %
  • Nagaland at 1.2 %
  • Arunachal Pradesh 29.3 %
  • Growth of population is the change in the number of people living in a particular area between two points of time. Its rate is expressed in percentage. Population growth has two components namely; natural and induced. While the natural growth is analysed by assessing the crude birth and death rates, induced components are explained by the volume of inward and outward movement of people in any given area
  • The annual growth rate of India՚s population is 2 per cent from 2001 to 2011. At this current rate of increase, it is estimated that the country՚s population will double itself in another 36 years and even surpass population of China.
Growth of Population
  • A continuous belt of states from west to east in the north-west, north, and north central parts of the country has relatively high growth rate than the southern states. It is in this belt comprising Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Madhya Pradesh, Sikkim, Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, and Jharkhand, the growth rate on the average remained 20 - 25 per cent.
  • There are many challenges for the society for adolescents - lower age at marriage, illiteracy – particularly female illiteracy, school dropouts, low intake of nutrients, high rate of maternal mortality of adolescent mothers, high rates of HIV/AIDS infections, physical and mental disability or retardedness, drug abuse and alcoholism, juvenile delinquency and commitence of crimes, etc.
  • The National Youth Policy is an example which has been designed to look into the overall development of our large youth and adolescent population. It was launched in 2003 and stresses on an all-round improvement of the youth and adolescents enabling them to shoulder responsibility towards constructive development of the country. It also aims at reinforcing the qualities of patriotism and responsible citizenship.
Census of India 2011 Population

India population density from 325 in 2001 to 382 in 2011

  • Density of population, is expressed as number of persons per unit area. It helps in getting a better understanding of the spatial distribution of population in relation to land
  • There has been a steady increase of about 200 persons per sq km over the last 50 years as the density of population increased from 117 persons/sq km in 1951 to 382 persons/sq km in 2011
  • Bangladesh (1,265) has greatest density followed by Taiwan (673) , Republic of Korea (527) , Rwanda (525) and Netherlands (508) . In the list of 235,12 have more than 1000 human per square kilometer. Greenland is the least densely populated territory in the world with 0.14 people per sq. km. Out of countries having at least 10 mn people, Top ranker Bangladesh is 38 times as dense as the lowest ranker Australia.
  • Arunachal Pradesh has least density of 17 persons/sq. km. while Delhi has highest at 11,320; Kerala highest in state at 860
    • Physiological density = total population/net cultivated area
    • Agricultural density = total agricultural population/net cultivable area
  • Agricultural population includes cultivators and agricultural labourers and their family members.
Census of India 2011 Population
  • Population composition is a distinct field of study within population geography with a vast coverage of analysis of age and sex, place of residence, ethnic characteristics, tribes, language, religion, marital status, literacy and education, occupational characteristics, etc.
  • 93 % villages are inhabited
  • Bihar and Sikkim have very high percentage of rural population. The states of Goa and Maharashtra have only little over half of their total population residing in villages
  • The size of villages also varies considerably. It is less than 200 persons in the hill states of north-eastern India, Western Rajasthan and Rann of Kuchchh and as high as 17,000 persons in the states of Kerala and in parts of Maharashtra
Population Composition

India rural population is 68.8 % in 2011 in contrast to 72.2 % in 2001

Urban population is 31.2 % in 2011 in contrast to 27.8 % in 2001.

  • In fact, since 1931, the growth rate of urban population has accelerated due to enhanced economic development and improvement in health and hygienic conditions
  • Rural-urban migration is conspicuous in the case of urban areas along the main road links and railroads in the North Indian Plains, industrial areas around Kolkata, Mumbai, Bangalore – Mysore, Madurai – Coimbatore, Ahmedabad – Surat, Delhi – Kanpur and Ludhiana – Jalandhar. In the agriculturally stagnant parts of the middle and lower Ganga Plains, Telengana, non-irrigated Western Rajasthan, remote hilly, tribal areas of northeast, along the flood prone areas of Peninsular India and along eastern part of Madhya Pradesh, the degree of urbanisation has remained low
Census of India 2011 Population
  • Sex ratio is 943 in 2011 in contrast to 933 in 2001.
  • Sex ratio in urban area is 929 and in rural area is 949 as per 2011.
  • Highest in Kerala at 1084 in 2011.
  • Lowest in Chandigarh at 818
  • Lowest in state in Haryana at 879
Linguistic Survey of India, 1903 – 1928

According to Grierson (Linguistic Survey of India, 1903 – 1928) there were 179 languages and as many as 544 dialects in the country.

As per Articles 344 (1) and 351 of the Indian Constitution, the eighth schedule includes the recognition to 22 languages

The smallest language groups are Kashmiri and Sanskrit speakers (0.01 per cent each) .

The Smallest Language Groups Are Kashmiri and Sanskrit Speakers
ReligionPercentEstimatedState Majority
All Religion100.00 %121 Crores35
Hindu79.80 %96.62 Crores28
Muslim14.23 %17.22 Crores2
Christian2.30 %2.78 Crores4
Sikh1.72 %2.08 Crores1
Buddhist0.70 %84.43 Lakhs-
Jain0.37 %44.52 Lakhs-
Other Religion0.66 %79.38 Lakhs-
Not Stated0.24 %28.67 Lakhs-
  • Hindu Population Growth rate slowed down to 16.76 % from previous decade figure of 19.92 % while Muslim witness sharp fall in growth rate to 24.60 % (2001 - 2011) from the previous figure of 29.52 % (1991 - 2001) . Such sharp fall in population growth rate for Muslims didn՚t happened in the last 6 decades. Christian Population growth was at 15.5 % while Sikh population growth rate stood at 8.4 % . The most educated and wealthy community of Jains registered least growth rate in 2001 - 2011 with figure of just 5.4 % .
  • Hindus are major group in (70 – 90 % and above) except the districts of states along Indo-Bangladesh border, Indo-Pak border, Jammu & Kashmir, Hill States of North-East and in scattered areas of Deccan Plateau and Ganga Plain.
  • Muslims, the largest religious minority, are concentrated in Jammu & Kashmir, certain districts of West Bengal and Kerala, many districts of Uttar Pradesh, in and around Delhi and in Lakshadweep. They form majority in Kashmir valley and Lakshadweep.
  • Christian population is distributed mostly in rural areas - Western coast around Goa, Kerala; Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Chotanagpur area and Hills of Manipur.
    • Sikhs - Punjab, Haryana and Delhi
    • Jains - Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra
    • Buddhist – Maharashtra, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Ladakh in Jammu & Kashmir, Tripura, and Lahul and Spiti in Himachal Pradesh
Working Population
  • India, the proportion of workers (both main and marginal) is only 39 per cent (2001) leaving a vast majority of 61 per cent as non-workers
  • The proportion of working population, of the states and Union Territories show a moderate variation from about 25 per cent in Goa to about 53 per cent in Mizoram. The states with larger percentages of workers are Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Meghalaya. Among the Union Territories, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu have higher participation rate.
  • Male workers are high in all sectors except primary where female workers are high
  • The 2001 Census has divided the working population of India into four major categories:
    • Cultivators
    • Agricultural Labourers
    • Household Industrial Workers (4.2 %)
    • Other Workers (37.6 %)
  • 58.2 % Cultivators and Agricultural Laborers combined as per 2001 census
  • Participation rate in secondary and tertiary sector has registered an increase. This indicates a shift of dependence of workers from farm-based occupations to nonfarm based ones, indicating a sectoral shift in the economy of the country.
  • Himachal Pradesh and Nagaland have very large shares of cultivators.
  • Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh have higher proportion of agricultural labourers.
  • The highly urbanised areas like Delhi, Chandigarh and Pondicherry have a very large proportion of workers being engaged in other services. This indicates not only availability of limited farming land, but also large-scale urbanisation and industrialisation requiring more workers in non-farm sectors

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