NCERT Class 12 Geography of India Chapter 10 Transport & Communication YouTube Lecture Handouts Part 1

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NCERT Class 12 Geography of India Chapter 10: Transport & Communication | CBSE | English

Title: Geography of India Chapter 10 Transport & Communication

Transport & Communication
  • All the production is meant for consumption. From the fields and factory, the produce is brought to the place from where consumers purchase it. It is the transportation of these items from the site of their production to the market which make them available to the consumer.
  • Human-beings use various methods to move goods, commodities, ideas from one place to another


Metalled Road, Ropeways, Cableways and Pipelines

Metalled and unmetalled road, ropeways, cableways and pipelines

  • Sher Shah Suri built the Shahi (Royal) road to strengthen and consolidate his empire from the Indus Valley to the Sonar Valley in Bengal. This road was renamed the Grand Trunk (GT) road during the British period, connecting Calcutta and Peshawar. At present, it extends from Amritsar to Kolkata. It is bifurcated into 2 segments:
    • National Highway (NH) -1 from Delhi to Amritsar, and
    • NH- 2 from Delhi to Kolkata.
  • 1943: Nagpur Plan This plan could not be implemented due to lack of coordination among the princely states and British India. After Independence, twenty-year road plan was started

National Highway

  • Central Govt. – Inter-state - connect the state capitals, major cities, important ports, railway junctions, etc. The length of the National Highways has increased from 19,700 km in 1951 to 65,769 km in 2005. constitute 2 % of road length and carry 40 % road traffic.
  • National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) was operationalized in 1995. It is an autonomous body under the Ministry of Surface Transport. It is entrusted with responsibility of development, maintenance and operation of National Highways. This is also the apex body to improve the quality of the roads designated as National Highways – Golden Quadrilateral; North South and East West Corridor.

State Highways

State government; join district headquarters; constitute 4 % of road length

District Roads

constitute 14 % of road length – link district headquarters to other major nodes in district

Rural Roads

80 % of total roads


  • BRO (Border Roads Organization) in May 1960 to accelerate economic development and defense preparedness – for North and northeast boundary - terrain joining Chandigarh with Manali (Himachal Pradesh) and Leh (Ladakh) . This road runs at an average altitude of 4,270 metres above the mean sea level.
  • Construction and maintenance of roads in strategically sensitive areas, the BRO also undertakes snow clearance in high altitude areas. The international highways are meant to promote the harmonious relationship with the neighboring countries by providing effective links with India
  • Density of roads (length of roads per 100 square km of area) varies from only 10.48 km in Jammu and Kashmir to 387.24 km in Kerala with a national average of 75.42 km. The density of road is high in most of the northern states and major southern states. It is low in the Himalayan region, north-eastern region, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan.
  • Nature of terrain and the level of economic development are the main determinants of density of roads. Construction of roads is easy and cheaper in the plain areas while it is difficult and costly in hilly and plateau areas. Therefore, not only the density but also the quality of roads is relatively better in plains as compared to roads in high altitude areas, rainy and forested regions.
Nature of Terrain and the Level of Economic Development
ZonesCodeHeadquarterLengthMajor Cities
Central RailwayCRMumbai CSMT4,101.63Mumbai, Bhusawal, Pune, Solapur, Nagpur CR
Konkan RailwayKRNavi Mumbai741Karwar, Ratnagiri
Northern RailwayNRDelhi6,968Delhi, Ambala, Firozpur, Lucknow NR, Moradabad
North Central RailwayNCRPrayagraj3,151Prayagraj, Agra, Jhansi
North Eastern RailwayNERGorakhpur3,667Izzatnagar, Lucknow NER, Varanasi
Northeast Frontier RailwayNFRMaligaon, Guwahati3,948Alipurduar, Katihar, Rangiya, Lumding, Tinsukia
North Western RailwayNWRJaipur5,459Jaipur, Ajmer, Bikaner, Jodhpur
Eastern RailwayERFairlie Place, Kolkata2,414Howrah, Sealdah, Asansol, Malda
East Central RailwayECRHajipur3,628Danapur, Dhanbad, Pt Deen Dayal Upadhyaya, Samastipur, Sonpur
East Coast RailwayECoRBhubaneswar2,204Khurda Road, Sambalpur, Rayagada
Southern RailwaySRChennai Central5,079Chennai, Tiruchirappalli, Madurai, Palakkad, Salem, Thiruvananthapurum
South Central RailwaySCRSecunderabad3,127Secunderabad, Hyderabad, Nanded
South Coast RailwaySCoRVisakhapatnam3,496Vijayawada, Guntur, Guntakal, Waltair
South Eastern RailwaySERGarden Reach, Kolkata2,631Adra, Chakradharpur, Kharagpur, Ranchi
South East Central RailwaySECRBilaspur2,447Bilaspur, Raipur, Nagpur SEC
South Western RailwaySWRHubballi3,566Hubballi, Bengaluru, Mysuru
Western RailwayWRMumbai (Churchgate)6,182Mumbai WR, Ratlam, Ahmedabad, Rajkot, Bhavnagar, Vadodara
West Central RailwayWCRJabalpur2,965Jabalpur, Bhopal, Kota

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