NCERT Class 12 Geography of India Chapter 10 Transport & Communication YouTube Lecture Handouts Part 2

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NCERT Class 12 Geography of India Chapter 10: Transport & Communication | CBSE | English


  • Mahatma Gandhi said, the Indian railways “brought people of diverse cultures together to contribute to India՚s freedom struggle.”
  • Indian Railway was introduced in 1853, when a line was constructed from Bombay to Thane covering a distance of 34 km. Indian Railways is the largest government undertaking in the country. The length of Indian Railways network is 63,221 km. It՚s very large size puts lots of pressure on a centralized railway management system
  • 18 zones – south coastal is the newest addition
    • Broad gauge: The distance between rails in broad gauge is 1.676 metre. The total length of broad-gauge lines is 46,807 km which accounts for 74.14 per cent of the total length of rail routes in the country.
    • Metre gauge: The distance between rails is one metre. It runs over 13,290 km covering 21.02 per cent of the total route length.
    • Narrow gauge: The distance between the rails in this case is 0.762 metre or 0.610 metre. Nearly 4.94 per cent of the total length of the Indian Railways is narrow gauge, which accounts for 3,124 km of route length. It is generally confined to hilly areas.
  • Indian Railways has launched extensive programme to convert the metre and narrow gauges to broad gauge. Moreover, steam engines have been replaced by diesel and electric engines. This step has increased the speed as well as the haulage capacity. The replacement of steam engines run by coal has also improved the environment of the stations. Metro rail has revolutionized the urban transport system in Kolkata and Delhi. replacement of diesel buses by CNG run vehicles along with introduction of metro is a welcome step towards controlling the air pollution in urban centres.
  • Areas around towns, raw material producing areas and of plantations and other commercial crops, hill stations and cantonment towns were well-connected by railways from the British colonial era. These were mostly developed for the exploitation of resources.
  • Konkan Railways: Major achievements of Indian Railways has been the construction of Konkan Railway in 1998. It is 760 km long rail route connecting Roha in Maharashtra to Mangalore in Karnataka. It is considered an engineering marvel. It crosses 146 rivers, streams, nearly 2000 bridges and 91 tunnels. Asia՚s largest tunnel which is nearly 6.5 km long, also lies on this route. The states of Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka are partners in this undertaking.
  • Railway network is relatively less dense in the hill states, north eastern states, central parts of India and Rajasthan


Water Inland and Ocean Ways

Cheapest means of transport and is most suitable for carrying heavy and bulky material. It is a fuel-efficient and eco-friendly mode


  • It was the chief mode of transport before the advent of railways. It, however, faced tough competition from road and railway transport.
  • Moreover, diversion of river water for irrigation purposes made them non-navigable in large parts of their courses. India has 14,500 km of navigable waterways, contributing about 1 % to country՚s transportation. It comprises rivers, canals, backwaters, creeks, etc. At present, 3,700 km of major rivers are navigable by mechanised flat bottom vessels, out of which only 2,000 km are actually used. Similarly, out of 4,300 km of the network of navigable canal, only 900 km is navigable by mechanised vessels. For the development, maintenance and regulation of national waterways in the country, the Inland Waterways Authority was set up in 1986. The authority has declared three inland waterways
  • Inland Waterways Authority has also identified ten other inland waterways, which could be upgraded. The backwaters (Kadal) of Kerala have special significance in Inland Waterway. Apart from providing cheap means of transport, they are also attracting large number of tourists in Kerala. The famous Nehru Trophy Boat Race (VALLANKALI) is also held in the backwaters.
Ports India Map

India has a vast coastline of approximate 7,517 km, including islands. Twelve major and 185 minor ports provide infrastructural support to these routes. Oceanic routes play an important role in the transport sector of India՚s economy. Approximately 95 per cent of India՚s foreign trade by volume and 70 per cent by value moves through ocean routes

Air Domestic International

Fastest, minimum time, important in areas of difficult terrain

  • Air transport in India made a beginning in 1911 when airmail operation commenced over a little distance of 10 km between Allahabad and Naini. But its real development took place in post-Independent period. The Airport Authority of India is responsible for providing safe, efficient air traffic and aeronautical communication services in the
  • Indian Air Space. The authority manages 126 airports including 11 international, 86 domestic and 29 civil enclaves at defence air fields. The air transport in India is managed by two corporations, Air India and Indian Airlines after nationalization.
  • Air India provides International Air Services for both passengers and cargo traffic. It connects all the continents of the world through its services. In 2005, it carried 12.2 million passengers and 4.8 lakh metric tonnes of cargo. About 52 per cent of the total air traffic was handled only at Mumbai and Delhi airports.
  • Pawan Hans is the helicopter service operating in hilly areas and is widely used by tourists in north-eastern sector. In addition, Pawan Hans Limited mainly provides helicopter services to petroleum sector and for tourism
  • Open Sky Policy: To help the Indian exporters and make their export more competitive, the government had introduced an Open Sky Policy for cargo in April 1992. Under this policy, foreign airlines or association of exporters can bring any freighters to the country.
    • 1947 – Air transport was provided by four major companies namely Indian National Airways, Tata Sons Limited, Air Services of India and Deccan Airways.
    • 1951 – Four more companies joined the services, Bharat Airways, Himalayan Aviation Limited, Airways India and Kalinga Airlines.
    • 1953 – Air transport was nationalized and two Corporations, Air India International and Indian Airlines were formed. Now Indian Airlines is known as ‘Indian’ .
  • The country՚s largest state-owned domestic carrier, Indian Airlines dropped the word ‘Airlines’ from its name and is known as ‘Indian’ w. e. f. December 8,2005. The new brand name ‘Indian’ now appears on both sides of the fuselage. The logo on the orange tail depicting ‘IA’ has also been changed. It has been replaced by a new logo which is a partly visible blue wheel and is inspired by the Sun Temple at Konark (Orissa) , symbolizing timeless motion, convergence and divergence. It also embodies strength as well as trust that has stood the test of time.

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