NCERT Class 12 Geography of India Chapter 4 Migration Types, Causes & Consequences YouTube Lecture Handouts

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NCERT Class 12 Geography of India Chapter 4: Migration - Types, Causes, Consequences| CBSE | English

NCERT Class 12 Geography of India Chapter 4 Migration Types, Causes & Consequences


Types of Migration

How it happens – over generations, over locations



(The carvans of people from all parts of the world kept on coming and settling in India and led to the formation of India.)

  • During colonial period (British period) , British sent millions of the indentured laborers to Mauritius, Caribbean islands (Trinidad, Tobago, and Guyana) , Fiji, and South Africa from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar; to Reunion Island, Guadeloupe, Martinique and Surinam by French and Dutch and by Portuguese from Goa, Daman and Diu to Angola, Mozambique to work as plantation workers. All such migrations were covered under the time-bound contract known as Girmit Act (Indian Emigration Act) . However, the living conditions of these indentured laborers were not better than the slaves
  • 2nd wave - There was a steady outflow of India՚s semi-skilled and skilled labour in the wake of the oil boom in West Asia in the 1970s
  • Third wave, of migrant was comprised professionals like doctors, engineers (1960s onwards) , software engineers, management consultants, financial experts, media persons (1980s onwards)
  • After liberalization, in the 90s education and knowledge – based Indian emigration has made Indian Diaspora one of the most powerful Diasporas in the world

History of Migration Studies in India

  • Actually, migration was recorded beginning from the first Census of India conducted in 1881. This data were recorded based on place of birth.
  • 1st major modification was introduced in 1961 Census by bringing in two additional components viz; place of birth i.e.. village or town and duration of residence (if born elsewhere) .
  • Further, in 1971, additional information on place of last residence and duration of stay at the place of enumeration were incorporated.
  • Information on reasons for migration were incorporated in 1981 Census and modified in consecutive Censuses.

Migration Related Question

Is the person born in this village or town?

Has the person come to this village or town from elsewhere?

In the Census of India, migration is enumerated on two bases:

  • Place of birth, if the place of birth is different from the place of enumeration (known as lifetime migrant) ;
  • Place of residence, if the place of last residence is different from the place of enumeration (known as migrant by place of last residence) .

As per 2001 census, out of 1,029 million people in the country, 307 million (30 per cent) were reported as migrants by place of birth. However, this figure was 315 million (31 per cent) in case of place of last residence.

Streams of Migration

Streams of Migration
  • In India, during 2001, out of 315 million migrants, enumerated based on the last residence; 98 million had changed their place of residence in the last ten years. Out of these, 81 million were intrastate migrants. Female migrants dominated the stream. Most of these were migrants related to marriage
  • Females predominate the streams of short distance rural to rural migration in both types of migration. Contrary to this, men predominate the rural to urban stream of inter-state migration due to economic reasons.
  • Census 2001 has recorded that more than 5 million person have migrated to India from other countries. Out of these, 96 per cent came from the neighbouring countries: Bangladesh (3.0 million) followed by Pakistan (0.9 million) and Nepal (0.5 million) . Included in this are 0.16 million refugees from Tibet, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, and Myanmar. As far as emigration from India is concerned, it is estimated that there are around 20 million people of Indian Diaspora, spread across 110 countries

Spatial Variation in Migration

Spatial Variation
  • Maharashtra, Delhi, Gujarat, and Haryana attract migrants from other states such as Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, etc.
  • Maharashtra occupied first place in the list with 2.3 million net in-migrants, followed by Delhi, Gujarat, and Haryana. On the other hand, Uttar Pradesh (-2.6 million) and Bihar
  • (-1.7 million) were the states, which had the largest number of net out-migrants from the state. Among the urban agglomeration (UA) , Greater Mumbai received the higher number of in migrants.

Causes of Migration

  • In India, people migrate from rural to urban areas mainly due to poverty, high population pressure on the land, lack of basic infrastructural facilities like health care, education, etc. Apart from these factors, natural disasters such as, flood, drought, cyclonic storms, earthquake tsunami, wars, and local conflicts also give extra push to migrate
  • Pull factors, which attract people from rural areas to cities. The most important pull factor for majority of the rural migrants to urban areas is the better opportunities, availability of regular work and relatively higher wages. Better opportunities for education, better health facilities, and sources of entertainment, etc.
  • Work and employment have remained the main cause for male migration (38 per cent) while it is only three per cent for the females. Contrary to this, about 65 per cent of females move out from their parental houses following their marriage. This is the most important cause in the rural areas of India except in Meghalaya where reverse is the case.

Consequences of Migration

  • Economic – remittances from international migrants. In 2002, India received US $ 11 billion as remittances from international migrants. Punjab, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu received highest remittances. Remittances are mainly used for food, repayment of debts, treatment, marriages, children՚s education, agricultural inputs, and construction of houses.
  • Remittances by internal migrants is meagre to support family. Unregulated migration to the metropolitan cities of India has caused overcrowding. Development of slums in industrially developed states such as Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Delhi is a negative consequence of unregulated migration within the country.
  • Demographic - Age and skill selective out migration from the rural area have adverse effect on the rural demographic structure. However, high out migration from Uttaranchal, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Eastern Maharashtra have brought serious imbalances in age and sex composition in these states.
  • Social – family planning, girl education diffuse to rural areas - evolution of composite culture and breaking through the narrow considerations; also creates social vacuum and Sense of dejection among individuals and people fall in anti-social acts
  • Environmental – unplanned growth of urban settlement and formation of slums shanty colonies, over exploitation of natural resources, groundwater depletion, air pollution, sewage disposal and solid waste management
  • Others – In rural areas male selective out migration leaving their wives behind puts extra physical as well mental pressure on the women.

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