NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 2: Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation & Wildlife Resources

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NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 2: Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation & Wildlife Resources

NCERT Class 8 Geography

Chapter 2: Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation & Wildlife Resources


90 % population on 30 % area

70 % land is uninhabited

30 % of total earth surface is land

Desert, Forest, Water bodies, plains, rivers

Landuse: Use of land for various purposes - agriculture, forestry, mining, building houses, roads

Determined by physical (soil, climate, water) & human (population & technology) factors

Land – Private or Community owned (Common Property Resources)

Threats: Land degradation, landslides, soil erosion, desertification

Land Conservation


Land reclamation

Regulated use of chemical pesticide and fertilizers

Checks on overgrazing


Mass movement of rock, debris or earth down a slope

Pangi village near Reckong Peo in Kinnaur district, HP – damage to Hindustan-Tibet road, National Highway – 22


Hazard Mapping

Retention Wall

Increase Vegetation

Surface Drainage Control Work


Thin layer of grainy substance covering earth

Soil Layers
Soil Description Chart

Soil Conservation

Mulching: bare ground is covered with straw

Contour Barrier: Stone, grass barrier along contour

Rock Dam: Rocks piled to slow water flow

Terrace Farming


Contour Ploughing: Plough parallel to contours

Shelter Belt: Planted to check water movement


Life began 3.5 billion years ago

2 ⁄ 3rd is water – ocean water is saline

Fresh water -2.7 % (of this 70 % as ice and glaciers; Only 1 % fit for human use)

Total Volume of water on earth remains constant – neither added nor deleted – Water Cycle Operates

Water Cycle

Water Shortage

Variation in seasonal or annual precipitation

Scarcity is caused by overexploitation

Contamination of water sources

The Water Shortage World Map

Main Contaminants

Discharge of untreated or partially treated sewage

Agricultural chemicals

Industrial effluents in water bodies

Water Conservation


Rainwater Harvesting

Lining Canals to minimize water loss by seepage


Drip Irrigation

Natural Vegetation & Wildlife

Occurs in narrow zone of biosphere

Ecosystem – Life supporting system

Plants – Food, Shelter, Timber, Oxygen, Shelter belts, Protect Soil

Wildlife – Milk, Hide, Wool, Meat

Vulture – Scavenger

Heavy Rain – Abundant trees

Dry areas – Thorny Shrubs

Forest – Evergreen or deciduous

Extinction of Natural Resources


Soil erosion

Constructional activities

Forest fires



Poaching of Animals

Conservation of Natural Vegetation & Wildlife

National parks, wildlife sanctuaries, biosphere reserves

Awareness programs like social forestry and Vanamohatasava

Laws on trades & poaching of birds and animals

International convention CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora)

CITES: Prohibit trade & see if it does not threaten the survival - 5,000 animal species & 28,000 plant species. Examples include bears, dolphins, cacti, corals, orchids & aloes

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