NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 3: Mineral and Power Resources YouTube Lecture Handouts

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NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 3: Mineral and Power Resources

NCERT Class 8 Geography

Chapter 3: Mineral and Power Resources


  • Naturally occurring substance with definite chemical composition
  • Physical Property: Color, Density or Hardness
  • Chemical Property: Solubility

Classification of Minerals

Classification of Minerals

Extraction of Minerals

Extraction of Minerals

Distribution of Minerals

  • Iron-ore in north Sweden
  • Copper and nickel deposits in Ontario, Canada
  • Iron, nickel, chromites and platinum in South Africa
  • Limestone deposits of Caucasus region of France
  • Manganese deposits of Georgia & Ukraine
  • Phosphate beds of Algeria

Minerals - Asia

  • of worldีšs tin production
  • China & India โ€“ Iron ore
  • China, Malaysia, Indonesia โ€“ Tin
  • China - lead, antimony and tungsten

Minerals - Europe

  • Worldีšs leading producer of iron
  • Russia, Ukraine, Sweden and France โ€“ Iron ore
  • Eastern Europe and European Russia: copper, lead, zinc, manganese and nickel
  • Switzerland โ€“ No mineral deposits
Minerals - Europe

Minerals โ€“ North America

  • Canadian region north of the Great Lakes - Iron ore, nickel, gold, uranium and copper
  • Appalachian region โ€“ Coal
  • Mountain ranges of the west - copper, lead, zinc, gold and silver
Minerals - North America

Minerals โ€“ South America

  • Brazil โ€“ Largest producer of high grade iron ore
  • Chile & Peru - Copper
  • Brazil & Bolivia โ€“ Tin
  • Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, Peru and Columbia โ€“ Oil
  • Gold, silver, zinc, chromium, manganese, bauxite, mica, platinum, asbestos and diamond
    Minerals - South America

Minerals โ€“ Africa

  • Worldีšs Largest producer of gold, platinum & diamonds
  • South Africa, Zimbabwe and Zaire- Gold
  • Nigeria, Libya and Angola โ€“ Oil
  • Copper, iron ore, chromium, uranium, cobalt and bauxite
  • Green Diamond is the rarest diamond
    Minerals - Africa

Minerals โ€“ Australia

Worldีšs Largest producer of bauxite

Kalgoorlie & Coolgardie - Gold

Gold, diamond, iron, copper, zinc, lead, manganese, tin & nickel

Minerals - Australia

Minerals โ€“ Antarctica

Coal in Transantarctic Mountains

Iron near Prince Charles Mountains of East Antarctica

Minerals - Antarctica

Minerals โ€“ India

Iron - Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, MP, Goa, Maharashtra & Karnataka

Bauxite - Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, MP, Gujarat, Maharashtra & Tamil Nadu

Mica - Jharkhand, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan

Copper - Rajasthan, MP, Jharkhand, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh

Manganese - Maharashtra, MP, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Karnataka and AP

Limestone - Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, MP, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu

Gold โ€“ Kolar in Karnataka

Salt - India is one of the worldีšs leading producers and exporters โ€“ Sambhar

Minerals - India

Conventional Sources of Energy

In common use for long โ€“ Firewood & Fossil Fuel

Firewood โ€“ Cooking & heating โ€“ 50 % in villages

Fossil Fuel โ€“ Coal, Petrol, Natural Gas

Table of Advantages and Disadvantages of Conventional Sources of Energy
Easy access

Provides Energy to a large number of people

Collection is time consuming


Promoting greenhouse effect



Domestic Use

Electricity โ€“ Thermal Power

Called Buried Sunshine

China, USA, Germany, Russia, South Africa & France

India: Raniganj, Jharia, Dhanbad and Bokaro in Jharkhand

Image of Advantages and Disadvantages of Coal
Extensively available

Efficient Conversion to electricity

Polluting Source

Bulky To Transport


Thick black liquid

Petra โ€œRockโ€ + Oelum โ€œOilโ€

Between rock layers

Called Black Gold

Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Venezuela, USA, Algeria & Russia

India: Digboi in Assam, Bombay High in Mumbai & deltas of Krishna and Godavari rivers

Image of Advantages and Disadvantages of Petroleum
Easier To transport (tankers)

Basis of Petro-Chemical Industry

Depletion of oxygen due to oil spillage and gas leakage

Pollutants released caused acid rain

Exploration of new fuel is not easy

Natural Gas

With petroleum deposits

Russia, Norway, UK , Netherlands

India: Jaisalmer, Krishna Godavari delta, Tripura & off shore in Mumbai

CNG: Eco-friendly & less pollution than petroleum

Image of Advantages and Disadvantages of Natural Gas
Deplction of oxygen due to oil Spillage and gas leakage

Pollutants released caused acid rain

Exploration of new fuel is not easy

Easier To Transport (Pipelines)

Cleaner than oil and coal

Cheaper than oil

Hydel Power

Rainwater in dams fall from heights on turbine & it moves

Turns generator to produce electricity

1 โ„ 4th of total worldีšs electricity by hydel

Paraguay, Norway, Brazil & China

Bhakra Nangal, Gandhi Sagar, Nagarjunsagar and Damodar valley

Image of Advantages and Disadvantages of Hydel Power

Promotes irrigation and fishing


Displacement of local community

Inundates low

Expensive to setup

Non-Conventional Sources of Energy

Solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy which are renewable

Solar Energy: Solar heaters, solar cookers, solar dryers

Image of Advantages and Disadvantages of Non-Conventional Sources of Energy

Non Polluting


Diffused source, so gets wasted

Wind Energy

Lies in coastal areas and mountain passes

Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, UK, USA and Spain

Image of Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Energy

Low cost production of electricity once setup

Safe and Clean

Noise Pollution

Wind mills costly to setup

Disturbs radio and T. V. reception

Harmful to birds

Geothermal Energy

Temperature in interior of earth rises

Hot springs โ€“ Cooking, Bathing

USA (largest geothermal power plants) , Philippines, Iceland, New Zealand, Central America

India: Manikaran (HP) , Puga (Ladakh)

Image of Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Energy
Clean eco-friendly and always availableLocated far away from cities and so costly to transport the electricity

Tidal Energy

Energy from tides

Build dams at sea openings

Russia, France, Gulf of Kachchh

Image of Advantages and Disadvantages of Tidal Energy
Non Polluting


Destroys wildlife habitat

Difficult to harness

Low Tidal Energy is Used to Produce Electricity

Biogas Energy

Dead plant and animal material, animal dung and kitchen waste

Energy saved is energy generated

Image of Advantages and Disadvantages of Tidal Energy
Low Cost

Easy to operate

Makes use of bio waste

Causes greenhouse effect
Gas Tank

Nuclear Energy

Fission and Fusion reactions

Uranium & thorium

Greatest producer โ€“ USA & Europe

Uranium โ€“ Rajasthan & Jharkhand

Thorium โ€“ Monazite in Kerala

Kalpakkam in Tamil Nadu, Tarapur in Maharashtra, Rana Pratap Sagar near Kota in Rajasthan, Narora in UP, Kaiga in Karnataka

Image of Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy
Emits large amount of energyGenerates radioactive waste


Nuclear Energy

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