NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 2: Physical Features of India YouTube Lecture Handouts

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NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 2: Physical Features of India

NCERT Class 9 Geography

Chapter 2: Physical Features of India

Basis

  • Variations in rock formation
  • Weathering, erosion & deposition
  • Plate Tectonics – Fold, Fault & Volcanic Activity
  • 3 Plate Boundaries – Convergent, Divergent & Transform
  • Most Volcanoes & Earthquakes occur at plate margins, some within plates
  • Gondwanaland, Angara land & Tethys
  • Himalayas & Northern Plains – Recent – Unstable
  • Northern Plains – Alluvial Deposits
  • Peninsular Plateau – Igneous & Metamorphic Rocks

Physiographic Divisions

  • Himalayan Mountains – KLZS – 2400 km (400 km wide in J& K; 150 km in Arun. P.) , Core is granite
  • Northern Plains
  • Peninsular Plateau
  • Indian Desert
  • Coastal Plains
  • Islands

Himalayas

  • Himadri – Great/Inner Himalayas
  • Himachal – Middle (Pir Panjal, Dhauladhar & Mahabharata) – Kangra & Kullu
  • Duns – Dehra Dun, Patli Dun & Kotli Dun
  • Shiwaliks – 10 - 50 km, height – 900 to 1100 m
  • Purvanchal – Beyond Brahmaputra – Sedimentary (sandstones) – Patkai, Naga, Manipur & Mizo Hills

Northern Plains

  • Indus, Ganga & Brahmaputra – Alluvial
  • 7 lakh sq. km. - 2400 km long & 240 - 320 km broad
  • Many distributaries
  • Western: Punjab Plains – Indus & tributaries – Doab
  • Ganga Plains: B/w Ghaggar & Teesta
  • Brahmaputra Plains: Bihar, Jharkhand & West Bengal
  • Bhabhar: Parallel to Shiwaliks – Streams Disappear
  • Terai – South of Bhabhar – Wet & Marshy – Forested – Dudhwa NP
  • Bhangar – Old Alluvium – Has calcareous deposits – Kankar
  • Khadar – Newer Young Deposits – Fertile for intensive agriculture

Peninsular Plateau

  • Tableland – Igneous & metamorphic rocks – Black Soil - Cotton
  • By breaking of Gondwana & is oldest – broad, shallow with rounded hills
  • Central Highlands – North of Narmada (Malwa)
  • Deccan Plateau – South of Narmada
  • NE - Meghalaya and Karbi-Anglong Plateau, separated by fault with 3 hills GKJ (west to east - Garo, Khasi, Jaintia Hills)
  • Western Ghats – Continuous - Thal, Bhor and the Pal Ghats – Orographic Rain, Anai Mudi (2,695 m) and Doda Betta (2,637 m)
  • Eastern Ghats – Mahanadi to Nilgiri – irregular, Mahendragiri (1,501 m) , Shevroy & Javadi Hills

Indian Desert

  • West of Aravallis
  • Sand dunes
  • Low Rainfall
  • Arid climate
  • Luni River
  • Brachans (Crescent shaped dunes) – Common
  • Longitudinal Dunes at Indo-Pak boundary

Coastal Plains

  • Western Coast – b/w Western Ghats & Arabian Sea – Narrow
  • Konkan (Mumbai-Goa) , Kannad & Malabar
  • Eastern Coast – Wide & level
  • Northern Circar & Coromandal Coast
  • Deltas: Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri
  • Chilka Lake: Largest Salt Water Lake – Mahanadi, Orissa

Islands

  • Lakshadweep – Close to Malabar Coast Kerala – Coral (Barrier, fringing & atolls)
  • Also called Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindive
  • Kavaratti island is administrative headquarters
  • Pitli island - uninhabited, has a bird sanctuary
  • Andaman (N) & Nicobar (S) Islands – Bigger, Numerous
  • Barren Island – Active Volcano

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