Punjab PSC Exam: Geology Glossary H to M

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Geology Glossary: H to M

  • Habit … Characteristic crystal form.
  • Hacklt … A fracture characteristic of metals in rock, like gold and copper (hackly) .
  • Hardness … The resistance by a substance to actions which tend to modify its surface by scratching, abrasion, penetration.
  • Hemimorphic … Half formed crystals in which the faces that grow on one end are different in angle and position from the faces to be found on the other end.
  • Hydrothermal … Hot water or solution sometimes superheated
  • Idiochromatic … Minerals … In which the color is due to an essential constituent.
  • Igneous rock. Rock formed by the solidification of magma.
  • Inclusions … Substances within a mineral, example, other minerals, gas bubbles, liquids, or other foreign objects.
  • Imitation Stones … Substances used to look like a genuine. i.e.: Glass, plastic, etc.
  • Inclusions … Solid, gaseous, or liquid material of various types incorporated in a crystal during its formation and growth.
  • Intaglio … Incised carving; a sunken design, i.e.. : Cameo
  • Intarsia … Mosaic inlay work using colored stones (and wood) .
  • Ion … Electrically charged atom, radical or molecule.
  • Isomorphous … Minerals in which two or more elements can replace each other to any extent without notably changing the appearance of the crystal.
  • Isotropic … Materials in which the optical character is the same in all directions.
  • Labradorescence … Patchy or diffuse iridescence due to the interference of light by reflection from parallel inclusions. Example Labradorite.
  • Light … Radiant energy which gives the sensation of sight. Velocity is 186,285 miles per second.
  • Litmus paper … Colored paper used to show whether a solution is acid or alkaline.
  • Lopolith. A large, lenticular, sunken mass of igneous rock whose surfaces are concordant with the enclosing rocks.
  • Luster … A reflective property of mineral surfaces.
  • Magma … Molten silica containing volatile substances in solution, present beneath the surface in certain areas of the earth՚s crust.
  • Malleable … Can be flattened by pounding, as in metals.
  • Mammillary … Rounded mineral surface
  • Massive … Minerals not bounded by crystal faces.
  • Metamorphism … (geological) . Changes in rocks brought about by heat and pressure acting in the rocks just below the surface.
  • Meteorite … Solid object that comes from outer space and falls to earth.
  • Miaroles … Small cavities in granitic rocks created by volatile components.
  • Miller indices … Group of three digits used to designate crystal faces.
  • Mohs Scale … The relative scale of the hardness of minerals, from 1 to 10, the order of hardness with no significance to quantitative relationship.
  • Molecule … Two or more atoms in close relationship, The smallest quantity of an element or compound which is capable of independent existence.
  • Monochromatic Light … Light of one wavelength only.