Chalcolithic Period

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  • Period III covers the Chalcolithic period.
  • The paintings of this period reveal the association, contact, and mutual exchange of requirements of the cave dwellers of this area with settled agricultural communities of the Malwa plains.
  • Many a time Chalcolithic ceramics and rock paintings bear common motifs, e. g. , cross-hatched squares, lattices.
  • Pottery and metal tools are also shown.
  • The artists of Bhimbetka used many colours, including various shades of white, yellow, orange, red, ochre, purple, brown, green and black.
Bhimbetka Used Many Colors for Indian Culture
  • White and red were their favourite colours.
  • paints were made by grinding various rocks and minerals.
  • They got red from haematite (known as geruin India) .
  • The green came from a green variety of a stone called chalcedony.
  • White might have been made out of limestone.
  • The rock of mineral was first ground into a powder.
  • This may then have been mixed with water and also with some thick or sticky substance such as animal fat or gum or resin from trees.
  • Brushes were made of plant fibre.
  • The colours have remained intact because of the chemical reaction of the oxide present on the surface of the rocks.
  • Some of the most beautiful paintings are very high up on rock shelters or close to the ceilings of rock shelters.
  • The paintings made at these places were perhaps for people to be able to notice them from a distance.
  • The dancing scene from the Lakhudiyar rock painting found in Uttarakhand.
  • At Bhimbetka, in some places, there are as many as 20 layers of paintings, one on top of another.
  • Why did the artists paint in the same place again and again? May be, this was because the artist did not like his creation and painted another painting on the previous one, or some of the paintings and places were considered sacred or special or this was because the area may have been used by different generations of people at different times.