Features of Dravida School & Four Styles of Dravidian Architecture for Rajasthan PSC Exam

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Features of Dravida School

Features of Dravida School
  • Single vimaan on main shrine
  • Shikhara octagonal shape on vimaan
  • Pillared wall
  • Presence of tank
  • Huge gopuram gateway
  • Sculptures of dwarpal instead of ganga/mithuna of nagara school
  • Dravidian architecture developed dynastically
  • Dravidian style was initiated by pallavas and flourished by cholas
  • Ex. gangeykondacholapuram bu Rajendra 1
  • Brihadeswara temple at tanjore, tamilnadu

Four Styles of Dravidian Architecture

1. Pallava School of Art

Pallava School of Art
  • Around 600 A. D.
  • Dravidian temple architecture started by pallavas
  • Developed in 4 phases
  • Mahendra varman-600 - 625 A. D.
  • Just the Rock cut Caves
  • The word mandap was used instead of temple
  • No real temple structure
  • Ex-adivaraha cave, Durga cave-mahishsurmardini, panchpandava cave
  • Narsimhan varman
  • Decoration in rock cut caves.
  • Mandapas now became rathas
  • 6 rathas in one cave
  • Largest ratha-dharmraja, smallest ratha-draupadi
  • Dharmaraja ratha was the precursor of the Dravidian style
Narasimha Varman Temple Dravidian Style
  • Rajsimhan varman
  • Real structural temples
  • Open air carving in relief on a rock surface
  • Sculpture different from gupta sculpture
  • More oval face, higher cheek bones, great slenderness and freer movements of the forms.
  • Exellency in animal representation
  • Later, structural temples made of masonry and stone.
  • Ex-kailashnath temple at Kancheepuram 3 parts sanctum with pyramedial tower, mandapa and rectangular courtyard-for subsidiary shrines
  • shore temple, mahabalipuram
Shore Temple, Mahabalipuram
  • Nandivarman
  • Started the concept of small temples
  • Confined all the features of Dravidian style

2. Chola School of Architecture

Brihedshawara Temple
  • 10 - 11th centuries
  • Revived the pallava heritage with fresh approach
  • The vimaana dominates the whole structure.
  • 2 beautiful creations Brihadeswara temple at thanjaur, tamilnadu
  • Gangeykonda cholapuram
  • Brihadeswara temple dedicated to shiva
  • Huge lingam
  • A massive monolithic bull (2nd biggest, 1st at lepakshi)
  • On the square forming the topmost tier is poised a huge rounded cupola of a single stone, the shadow of which never falls on the ground. -unique achievement
  • Immense gopuram

3. Vijaynagar School of Architecture

Hampi Temple
  • Around 16th century
  • Hampi was the capital.
  • Important ruler krishnadevraya built temples, pillared mandapas, Gopuram called as rayagopurams.
  • Larger gopuram and High enclose walls.
  • More decoration perticular design supernatural horse
  • Secular buildings were built.
  • for ex. lotus mahal
  • Vitthalswamy temple
  • Amman shrine and kalyana gopuram
  • Centraal raised platform surrounded by rows of carved pillars-open pavallion
  • Ex. hall of dance at lepakshi
  • Festival hall at Vellore
  • Virabhadra temple, Lepakshi three figures share four legs.
  • Nandi near lepakshi
  • Seated ‘Ugra narsimha’

4. Nayaka School of Architecture

Meenakshi Temple at Madurai
  • Around 17th century
  • Dominant in Madurai region
  • The nayakas rose on the fall of the vijayanagara empire
  • Continued the artistic traditions of vijayanagara empire
  • Most famous-meenakshi-sundareswara temple at Madurai
  • By thirumalai nayak
  • Temple complex has 2 shrines
  • 1st shiva as sundareswara
  • 2nd his wife in the form of goddess meenakshi
  • Every space is filled with surface carvings.
  • Large tank surrounded by steps and a pillared portico.
  • Prominent feature development of prakaram roofed embulatory passageways to connect various parts of the temples.
  • Most famous prakaram of this period at rameswaram.