Architecture, Mughal Art and Architecture, Sufi and Bhakti Movement

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Qutab Minar

  • Built by Iltutmish (started by Aibak)
  • Dedicated to the Sufi saint Qutub-ud-Din Bakhtiyar Kaki


  • added an arch – Alai Darwaza – to Qutub Minar
  • City: Siri
  • Haus Khas


  • Built Tughlaqabad
  • Feature: Sloping walls
  • Firuz Shah Kotla


  • Built on platforms
  • Lodi Garden

Mughal Art and Architecture

Pietra dura: decorating the walls with floral designs made of semi-precious stones


  • Agra Fort
  • Fatehpur Sikri; Buland Darwaza was built to commemorate Akbar՚s victory in Gujarat
  • Gujrat style of architecture was used
  • Painters: Daswant and Basawan
  • European painting was introduced
  • Litterateurs: Abul Fazl and Faizi; Abdur Rahim Khan-i-Khanah; Tulsidas
  • Marathi: Eknath and Tukaram

Shah Jahan

  • Red Fort, Delhi
  • Moti Masjid at Agra Fort
  • Jama Masjid, Delhi


  • Great patron of painting
  • Portrait painting and painting of animals
  • Painter: Mansur

Major Schools of Paintings During Mughal Time

  • Rajasthan style
  • Pahari school
  • Largest number of books on classical Indian music in Persian were written during Aurangzeb՚s reign

Sufi Movement

  • Organised into 12 orders or silsilahs
  • Orders broadly divided into two
    • Ba-shara
    • Be-shara
  • Early sufis: Rabia, Mansur bin Hallaj, Al Ghazzali
  • Yogic book, Amrit Kund, was translated into Persian from Sanskrit


Chisti and Suharwardi silsilah

Chisti Order

  • Established by Moinuddin Chishti
  • Bakhtiyar Kaki, Farid ud din Ganj-i-Shakau, Nizamuddin Aulia, Nasirudding Chiragh-i-Delhi
  • Believed in fakiri (poverty) .


  • Largely confined to Punjab and Multan
  • Shaikh Shihabuddin Suharwardi and Hamid-ud-Din Nagori
  • Did not believe in fakiri. Accepted the service of the state.

Other Important Sufi

Gesu Daraz

Bhakti Movement

Nath Panti movement challenged the caste system

Literature and Art

  • Khusrau created a new style of Persian which came to be called shabaq-i-hindi.
  • Historians: Barani, Afif and Islami
  • Zia Nakhshabi translated Sanskrit stories into Persian
    • Tuti-Nama (Book of the Parrot)
  • Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin of Kashmir had Rajtarangini and Mahabharata translated into Persian
  • Raja Man Singh of Gwalior was a lover of music
    • Man, Kautahal was compiled which contained all new musical nodes introduced by Muslims.