Foreign Invasions, Rajputs, Mohammad of Ghori and Delhi Sultanate

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Foreign Invasions

Mahmud of Ghazni

  • Hindushahi ruler Jayapala invaded Ghazni with help the son of a former Ghazni governor. He was however defeated.
  • In retaliation, Mahmud Ghazni (998 - 1030 AD) made 17 raids on India
  • 1001 AD: Mahmud defeated Jayapala and took him prisoner but released. He committed suicide.
  • 1008 - 09: Battle between Mahmud and Anandpala (Jayapala՚s son) . Anandapala defeated.
  • Reason for subsequent raids: to get funds to continue his struggle in Central Asia
  • Important raids
    • 1018: Kanauj
    • 1025: Somnath
  • Seljuk empire came into being after Mahmud.


Major States

  • Gahadavalas – Kanauj
  • Paramara – Malwa [Ujjain. Dhara]
  • Chauhans – Ajmer
  • Kalachuris – Jabalpur
  • Chandella – Bundelkhand
  • Chalukya – Gujarat
  • Tomars – Delhi

Nagara Architecture of Temples

  • Vastupala: Chalukyan minister-built Jain Temples at Mt Abu
  • Ujjain and Dhara: Sanskrit learning
  • Hemachandra: Jain scholar wrote in Sanskrit and Apabhramsha
  • Revival of Sanskrit: used by higher classes again

Mohammad of Ghori

  • Shahabuddin Muhammad (aka Muizzuddin Muhammad)
  • 1191: First battle of Tarain – Ghazni defeated
  • 1192: Second battle of Tarain – Prithviraj defeated.
  • Mohammad left: appointed Qutub-i-din Aibek
  • 1194: Battle of Chandawar: Muhammad Ghori vs Jaichandra of Kanauj. Jaichander lost.
  • Battles of Tarain and Chandawar laid the foundations of the Turkish rule in India.
  • Bakhtiyar Khilji: Muhammad՚s Governor of Bengal

Delhi Sultanate

1206 - 1527

Delhi Sultanate

Slave Dyansty

After death of Muhammad Ghori

  • Yalduz succeeded him at Ghori
  • Qutubbdin Aibek succeeded him at Ghazni (1206 - 1210)
Slave Dyansty


  • died after falling from his horse while playing polo
  • two slaves: Iltutmish (son-in-law) and Qubacha

Iltutmish (1210 - 36)

  • Real consolidator of Turkish conquests in India
  • Aibak՚s slave Qubacha declared independence of Multan
  • Ousted Qubacha from Multan and Uchch

Razia (1236 - 39)

  • Defeated her wazir Nizam ul Mulk Junaidi
  • Salve: Yakut Khan

Balban (1265 - 86)

  • Aka Ulugh Khan
  • Father in law of the sultan Nasiruddin Mahmud (1246 - 1266)
  • Authoritarian and despot.
  • Administered justice with impartiality
  • Started sijada and paibos (prostration and kissing monarch՚s feet)
  • Bughra Khan was his son who preferred to rule over Bengal