Vijayanagar, Bahami, Gujarat and Mughals-Babur and Humayun

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  • Harihara and Bukka – 1336
  • Italian traveller Nicolo Conti visited Vijayanagar in 1420
  • After this dynasty ended, Krishna Deva Raya founded the Tuvalu dynasty
  • 1565: Battle of Talikota (at Banihatta) aka Battle of Rakshasa Tangadi
    • Vijayanagar vs Deccan Sultans
    • Ended the Vijayanagar empire.


  • Alauddin Hasan – 1347 (aka Hasan Gangu)
  • Bahmani ruler Firuz Shah married the daughter of Vijayanagar king Deva Rai I
  • Firuz Shah Bahmani
    • Wanted to make Deccan a cultural centre
    • Inducted Hindus on a large scale
    • Built an observatory near Daulatabad
  • Mahmud Gawan was an important prime minister


  • Ahmed Shah
    • Imposed jizyah
  • Mahmud Begarha

Mughals - Babur & Humayun

  • Ibrahim Lodi succeeded Sikandar Lodi in 1517
  • Daulat Khan Lodi and Rana Sanga invited Babur to displace Ibrahim Lodi in India
  • 1526: Battle of Panipat
  • Gunpowder was used in this battle
  • 1527: Battle of Khanwa between Rana Sanga and Babur
  • Humayun succeeded Babur in 1530
  • He built a new city at Delhi: Dinpanah
  • Built Purana Qila
  • 1539: Battle of Chausa – Sher Shah def Humayun
  • 1540: Battle of Kanauj – Sher Shah def Humayun
  • 1555: Humayun recovered Delhi
  • Died after falling from the first floor of his library

Sher Shah

  • 1540: defeated Humayun at Kanauj
  • 1544: Sher Shah vs Rajputs at the battle of Samel
  • Abbas Khan Sarwani – historian of Sher Shah
  • GT Road from Indus to Sonargaon in Bengal
  • Built a road from Agra to Jodhpur and Chittor, from Lahore to Multan
  • Built sarais
  • Dictum of Shaikh Nazami: “If a merchant should die in your country it is a perfidy to lay hands on his property” . Local village headmen and zamindars were made responsible for any loss that the merchant suffered on the roads.
  • Currency reforms; weights and measures
  • Chehra and dagh system
  • Tomb at Sasaram
  • Malik Md Jaisi during his time
  • Jizyah continued to be implemented.
  • Sher Shah was succeeded by his son Islam Shah in 1545



  • Born at Amarkot in 1542
  • 1556: Second Battle of Panipat – vs Hemu
  • Zabti system of land revenue assessment aka Todar Mal՚s bandobast
  • Other land revenue systems: dahsala, batai, ghalla-bakhshi, nasaq
  • Land
    • Polaj – in cultivation every year
    • Parati (fallow) – uncultivated polaj
    • Chachar – fallow for two to three years
    • Banjar – fallow for more than three years
  • Mansabdari system – 1577
  • 1576: Battle of Haldighati with Rana Pratap
  • Birbal was killed in a battle with Afghans

Jahangir (1605 - 27)

Clash between Sikhs and Mughals began with the imprisonment and death of Guru Arjun by Jahangir on a charge of helping rebel prince, Khusrau


  • Issued Zawabit: secular decrees
  • Discontinued the Parsi festival Nauroz
  • Discontinued Jharokha Darshan
  • Reimposed Jizyah in 1679; suspended it in 1705


  • Ahmednagar was captured by the Mughals in 1600. Chand Bibi was defeated.
  • Malik Amber of Berar was an obstacle. So was Ibrahim Adil Shah of Bijapur
  • Ibrahim Adil Shah II
    • Aka Abla Baba and Jagat Guru
    • Book – Kitab-i-Nauras on Music
    • New Capital: Nauraspur
    • Gol Gumbaj – his mausoleum
    • Ibrahim Rauza
  • Golconda: Md Quli Qutub Shah
    • Char Minar


  • Guru Teg Bahadur was beheaded by Aurangzeb
  • 1699: Khalsa was established by Guru Gobind Singh


  • 1665: Treaty of Purandar – between Shivaji and Jai Singh (on behalf of Aurangzeb)
  • 1666: Shivaji escaped from Azeb՚s detention
  • 1674: Shivaji crowned himself at Raigarh
  • Assumed the title of ‘Haindava Dharmoddharak’
  • Died in 1680.