Indus Valley Civilization, South, Foreign Invasions, Philosophy

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South

Pandya

  • Sent embassies to the Roman emperor Augustus

Chola

  • Elara conquered Sri Lanka

  • Karikala founded Puhar aka Kaveripatnam which was their capital

Cheras

  • Kerala and parts of TN

  • Senguttavan is the greatest king

  • Roman influence: Muziris. Also built a temple of Augustus

Vellalas – rich peasants

Arasar – ruling class

Pariyars – agricultural labourers

Shrent – artisan guilds

Chalyukyas

  • Badami (Bijapur)

  • Pulakesin II was the important ruler

  • Court poet Ravikirti wrote his eulogy in the Aioli inscription

Pallavas

  • They succeeded the Ikshvakus

  • Kanchipuram was their capital

  • Came in conflict with Kadambas

    • Mayurasharman had founded the Kadambas kingdom (Capital: Vijayanti/Banavasi)

  • Nasrimhavarman occupied the Chalukya capital Vatapi in 642 AD

    • Assumed the title of Vatapikonda

  • Constructed a number of temples

  • Ratha temples at Mahabs built by Nasrimhavarman who founded Mahabs

  • Pattadakal: Papanatha temple and Virupaksha temple

  • Kailashnath temple at Kanchi

Pallava Dynasty

Pallava Dynasty

One of the major revolts in the south was the Kalabhras revolt. It was so widespread that it could be put down only through the joint efforts of the Pandyas, the Pallavas and the Chalukyas

Three types of villages: Ur (commoners), Sabha (Brahmans), Nagaram (traders etc)

Foreign Invasions

Major events

Table of Major Events
Table of Major Events

326-325 BC

Alexander’s invasion

Literature

Table of Show of Literature
Table of show of Literature

Book

Author

Mudrarakshasa (play)

Vishakhadatta

Indika

Megasthenes

Milind Panho

Buddhist literature of questions of Manender to Nagarjuna

Buddhacharita

Ashvaghosha

Saundarananda (Sanskrit kavya)

Ashvaghosha

Mahavastu (Buddhist-hybrid Sanskrit)

Divyavandan (Buddhist-hybrid Sanskrit)

Kamasutra

Vatsyayana

Charaksamhita

Charaka

Gathasaptasatti (Prakrit book)

Hala (Satavahana king)

Tolkkappiyam (deals with grammar and poetics)

Silappadikaram and Manimekalai are Tamil epics

IIango Adigal (Silappadikaram)

Natural History (Latin)

Pliny (Roman writer)

Mrichchhakatika

Shudraka

Abhijnanashakuntalam

Kalidasa

Amarakosha

Amarasimha

Romaka Sidhanta (Astronomy)

Harshacharita

Banbhatta

Priyadarshika; Ratnavali; and Nagananda (plays)

Harshavardhana

Astadhyayi

Panini

Mahabhashika

Patanjali

Suryasiddhanta

A treatise on astronomy. Authorship disputed.

Brihatsamhita

Varahmira (5th CE)

Sushrutsamhita

Sushrut (2nd CE)

Charaksamhita

Charak (2nd CE)

Travelers

Table of Travelers
Table of Travelers

Travelers

During time of

Work

Megasthenes (ambassador of Seleucus)

Chandragupta Maurya

Indika

Fa Hien

Chandragupta Vikramaditya

Hsuan Tsang

Harshavardhana

Pliny wrote Naturalise Historia

Philosophy

Six schools

Table of Six Schools
Table of Six schools

School

Philosophy

Major proponent

Samkhya

Materialistic. No god. Later turned spiritualistic. Prakriti- Purusha. Salvation through knowledge acquired through pratyaksha, anumana, shabda

Kapila

Yoga

Slavation through meditation and physical application

Nyaya

System of logic. Salvation through acquisition of knowledge.

Vaisheshika

Discussion of material elements or dravya. Atom theory. (Beginning of physics). Belief in god.

Mimansa

Vedas contain the eternal truth. Reasoning provided for vedic rituals. Perform vedic rites for salvation.

Vedanta

Brahmasutra. Brahma is the reality. Atma is identical with Brahma.

Shankara (Advaita) – born in Kerala

Ramanuja (Vishistadvaita)

Shuddhadvaita (Vallabha)

Lokayata

Materialistic philosophy.

Charavaka

Developed by: