Major Outstanding Issues, Management of Transborder Rivers, Pakistan-China Relations and Effect on India

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Major Outstanding Issues

Border Dispute

  • China’s claim in two regions

    • Aksai Chin

    • Arunachal Pradesh

  • These two regions are strategically important for China to control the restive populations of Xingjian and Tibet and integrate them

  • The Macartney-Macdonald Line proposed during British times is almost the same as the present Line of Actual Control

    • The northern boundary between India and Tibet was never clearly demarcated

  • The McMahon Line forms the eastern border with China

    • British India and China gained a common border in 1826 after the British annexation of Assam and the Treaty of Yandabo

    • 1913-14: representatives of Britain and Tibet (and Myanmar or China?) attended a conference in Shimla and drew up an agreement concerning Tibet’s status and borders

    • McMahon Line was drawn

    • China objected to the proposed Sino-Tibet boundary and repudiated the agreement

East-West Swap

Zhou Enlai had proposed that China relinquish its claim to most of India’s northeast in exchange for India’s abandonment of its claim to Aksai Chin.

1962: War

  • In recent times, India China boundary has been one of the most peaceful borders in the world

  • A solution to the question is not due to lack of effort; instead it arises from the difficulty of the question itself

  • CBMs are in place to ensure peace in border areas

  • Special Representatives (SRs) talks are conducted on the border question

Defence Exchanges

Recently defence exchanges were stalled after an Indian army officer was denied visa (?)

Dalai Lama

Sought refuge in Dharmsala in 1959

Management of Transborder Rivers

  • Many of our northern and north eastern rivers arise in the highlands of Tibet

  • Dams: Zang-mu

    • India has sought assurances from China that it will take no action to negatively affect the flow of rivers into India

    • China has assured that the projects on Brahmaputra are run-of-the-river projects

Pakistan-China Relations and Effect on India

  • China’s growing relations with Pakistan are of concern to India

  • China has been the main supplier of weapons systems and air and naval combat craft to Pak

  • China is co-producing K8 trainer aircraft and JF17 fighter aircraft in Pak

  • Supplied Pakistan with M-11 SRBM

  • <It is alleged that the technology to make nuclear bombs was also supplied by China>

  • Civil nuclear cooperation

  • Development of road, rail, and gas pipeline infrastructure through the Gilgit-Baltistan region as well as port facilities in Gwadar

  • India believes that a stable and prosperous Pakistan is in India’s interest. It does not view bilateral relationships as zero-sum games but there are some genuine concerns

  • China’s role in POK

  • China’s J&K policy

  • Sino-Pak security and nuclear relationship.

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