River Water Sharing: Afghan, TimeLine: Shimla Agreement and Kargil War

Get unlimited access to the best preparation resource for IAS : Get detailed illustrated notes covering entire syllabus: point-by-point for high retention.

River Water Sharing


  • Pakistan supported the anti-Soviet mujahadeen and then the Taliban “to ensure that in the event of conflict with India, Afghanistan would provide Pakistan with support and use of its land and air space if needed,” write Afghanistan experts Barnett R. Rubin and Abubakar Siddique in a 2006 USIP report (PDF) . Pakistani military planners, they write, refer to this as the quest for “strategic depth.” In this Foreign Affairs essay, Rubin argues that Pakistan՚s military establishment has always approached the various wars in and around Afghanistan as a function of its main institutional and national security interests: “first and foremost, balancing India.”
  • “Pakistan՚s fears of encirclement (PDF) by India have been compounded” by the new Indian air base in Farkhor, Tajikistan,
  • It is no surprise then that Pakistan sees India՚s growing influence in Afghanistan as a threat. After India opened consulates in Herat, Mazar-e-Sharif, Jalalabad, and Kandahar, Pakistan charged that these consulates provide cover for Indian intelligence agencies to run covert operations against Pakistan, as well as foment separatism in Pakistan՚s Balochistan province.


Shimla Agreement

  • The agreement laid down the principles that should govern their future relations. It also conceived steps to be taken for further normalization of mutual relations. Most importantly, it bound the two countries ″ to settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations
  • The accord converted the 1949 UN “Cease-fire Line” into the Line of Control (LOC) between Pakistan and India which however did not affect the status of the disputed territory
  • Diplomatic and trade relations were also re-established in 1976.
  • In December 1988, Prime Ministers Benazir Bhutto and Rajiv Gandhi concluded a pact not to attack each other՚s nuclear facilities
  • In May 1998 India, and then Pakistan, conducted nuclear tests.
  • The Lahore Declaration was signed on February 21 along with a memorandum of understanding (MoU) after three rounds of talks between the Indian and Pakistani leaders. In its content, both governments asserted their commitment to the vision of peace, stability and mutual progress and their full commitment to the Shimla Agreement and the Charter of the United Nations. Both governments recognized through the Lahore Declaration that the development of nuclear weapons brought added responsibility to both nations towards avoiding conflict and promoted the importance of Confidence-building measures, especially to avoid accidental and unauthorised use of nuclear weapons. India and Pakistan also decided to give each other advance notification of ballistic missile flight tests and accidental or unexplained use of nuclear weapons to avoid the outbreak of a nuclear conflict.

Kargil War

  • The Agra summit was a two-day summit held on July 15th and 16th , 2001 between Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf and Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee. It was organized with the aim to resolve long-standing issues between India and Pakistan.
  • Violent activities in the region declined in 2004. There are two main reasons for this: warming of relations between New Delhi and Islamabad which consequently lead to a ceasefire between the two countries in 2003 and the fencing of the LOC being carried out by the Indian Army. Moreover, coming under intense international pressure, Islamabad was compelled to take actions against the militants՚ training camps on its territory. In 2004, the two countries also agreed upon decreasing the number of troops present in the region.
  • On June 20,2004, with a new government in place in India, both countries agreed to extend a nuclear testing ban and to set up a hotline between their foreign secretaries aimed at preventing misunderstandings that might lead to a nuclear war.

Developed by: