Deep Ecology for Tripura PSC

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  • Deep ecology vs. Scientific Ecology

  • Deep Ecology by philosopher Arne Naess in 1973 – Sherpas considered some mountains as sacred and would not even climb on them

  • Deep experience, deep questioning and deep commitment

  • Deep Ecology where we experience ourselves as part of the living earth and finding our role in protecting the planet

  • Scientific Ecology which is the study of the inter-relationships between species and their environment.

Long Range and Short Range

  • Long-range deep ecology movement referred to deep questioning, right down to fundamental root causes. It aims to redesign the whole system and preserve the ecological and cultural diversity of natural systems

  • Short-term approach stops before ultimate level of fundamental change, promoting technological fixes (e.g. recycling, increased automotive efficiency) based on same consumption-oriented values of the industrial economy.

  • 4 Pillars

  • -Idea (part of earth under gaia – alive earth

  • -Feeling

  • -Spirituality

  • -Action

  • It is inspired also by a philosophy like Spinoza has, or another kind of philosophy, or religion. So ecosophies would then be personal point of view, that's general covering your life, covering political views you have, social views you have, et cetera.


  • Spinoza's metaphysics consists of one thing, substance, and its modifications (modes). Early in The Ethics Spinoza argues that there is only one substance, which is absolutely infinite, self-caused, and eternal. He calls this substance "God", or "Nature".

  • ecosophy I mean a philosophy of ecological harmony or equilibrium. A philosophy as a kind of sofia (or) wisdom, is openly normative, it contains both norms, rules, postulates, value priority announcements and hypotheses concerning the state of affairs in our universe.

  • Image of The Apron Diagram

    Image of the Apron Diagram

Naess distinguished ecosophy from ecophilosophy; it is not a discipline in the same sense but what he called a "personal philosophy," which guides our conduct toward the environment. He defined ecosophy as a set of beliefs about nature and other people which varies from one individual to another.

  • forest has an intrinsic value, or value of its own, versus an instrumental value, where a forest is seen as a means to an end

  • Naess' "The Basics of Deep Ecology“

  • We must take four levels into account: (1) verbalized fundamental philosophical and religious ideas and intuitions; (2) the platform of the deep ecology movement; (3) more or less general consequences derived from the platform—lifestyles and general policies of every kind; and (4) concrete situations and practical decisions made in those situations.

  • Level 1 - Christianity, Buddhism, Secularism

  • Level 2-

  • 1.The flourishing of human and non-human life on Earth has inherent value. The value of non-human life-forms is independent of the usefulness of the non-human world for human purposes (touches on the intrinsic value of non-human life).

  • 2.The richness and diversity of life forms are also values in themselves and contribute to the flourishing of human and non-human life on Earth.

  • 3.Humans have no right to reduce this richness and diversity except to satisfy vital needs.

  • 4.Flourishing of the human life and cultures is compatible with a substantial decrease of the human population. The flourishing of non-human life requires such a decrease.

  • 5.Present human interference with non-human world is excessive and situation is worsening.

  • 6.In view of the foregoing points, policies must be changed. Changes in policies affect basic economic, technological and ideological structures. The state of affairs will be deeply different from the present.

  • 7.Ideological change is mainly that of appreciating life quality (dwelling in situations of inherent value) rather than adhering to an increasingly higher standard of living. There will be a profound awareness of difference between big and great.

  • 8.Those who subscribe to foregoing points have an obligation directly or indirectly to participate in attempt to implement necessary changes.

  • Level 3 - translate the deep ecology platform into tangible change in policy decision-making

  • Level 4- particular decisions, situations, and actions one must partake in or choose so that real change does happen.


  • Claims are explained as deeper but are shallow

  • fails to link environmental crises with authoritarianism and hierarchy

  • criticized for contradiction between species as are morally equal and description of pioneering species.

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