NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 1: Resources & Development YouTube Lecture Handouts

Get unlimited access to the best preparation resource for ICSE/Class-10 : get questions, notes, tests, video lectures and more- for all subjects of ICSE/Class-10.

Get video tutorial on: Examrace YouTube Channel

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 1: Resources and Development

NCERT Class 10 Geography

Chapter 1: Resources & Development

Physical Environment (Nature)
Resources of Natural and Human

Resource Classification

  • Based on origin
    • Biotic
    • Abiotic
  • Based on exhaustibility
    • Renewable
    • Non-renewable
  • Based on ownership
    • Individual – plantation, pastures
    • Community – grazing ground, village ponds
    • National – road, canal, railways
    • International - EEZ
  • Based on status of development
    • Potential – found but unutilized – Raj & Guj (wind and solar)
    • Developed - technology and feasibility
    • Stock – no technology to harness them - hydrogen
    • Reserves - subset of stock used with existing technology – water in dam or forest is reserve now but can be used in future

Problem of Resource Development

  • Depletion of resources
  • Accumulation of resources
  • Indiscriminate exploitation of resources

Remedial Measures

  • Equitable distribution of resources
  • Sustainable development
  • Rio de Janeiro Summit, 1992 – Agenda 21 – combat environmental damage, poverty, disease through global co-operation

Resource Planning in India

  • Identification and inventory of resources
  • Evolving planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up
  • Matching resource development plans with overall national development plans
  • Rich resource regions – attraction for colonies

Resource Conservation

  • There is enough for everybody՚s need and not for any body՚s greed
  • 1968 – Club of Rome – resource conservation
  • 1974 – Schumacher - book β€œSmall is Beautiful”
  • 1987- Brundtland Commission Report – Sustainable Development - Our Common Future

Land Resource

  • 43 % plains – Agriculture
  • 30 %- Mountains
  • 27 % Plateau – Minerals and fossils
  • 3.28 million sq km – land use data for only 93 % is known (rest in Assam & PoK)
  • Net sown area – 80 % in Punjab & Haryana; 10 % in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur & A & N. Is.
  • Forest Area – 33 % as per National Forest Policy, 1952
  • Wasteland – rocky, arid and desert lands
  • 95 % basic needs form land
India: Wasteland in 2000

Land Utilization

  • Forests
  • Land not available for cultivation
    • Barren and waste land
    • Land put to non-agricultural uses, e. g. buildings, roads, factories, etc.
  • Other uncultivated land (excluding fallow land)
    • Permanent pastures and grazing land,
    • Land under miscellaneous tree crops groves (not included in net sown area)
    • Culturable waste land (left uncultivated for more than 5 agricultural years)
  • Fallow lands
    • Current fallow- (left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year)
    • Other than current fallow- (left uncultivated for the past 1 to 5 agricultural years)
  • Net sown area: Area sown more than once in an agricultural year plus net sown area is known as gross cropped area
Table of General Land Use Categories 1960 - 61 to 2002 - 03
General Land use Categories 1960 - 61General Land use Categories 2002 - 03
ForestCulturable Waste Land
Barren and waste landFallows other than Current Fallow
Area under non-agricultural useCurrent Fallow
Permanent Pastures and Grazing land

Area under misc. - Tree crop and Groves

Net Sown Area

Land Degradation

  • Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa – Mining
  • Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra – Overgrazing
  • Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh – Overirrigation

Mitigate Land Degradation

  • Afforestation
  • Proper management of grazing
  • Planting of shelter belts of plants
  • Control on over grazing
  • Stabilization of sand dunes
  • Management of waste lands
  • Control of mining activities
  • Proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes

Soil Classification in India - Alluvial

  • Most widespread, north, river and deltas – Duars, Chao, Terai
  • Bangar – Old, more kankar nodules
  • Khadar – New, finer and fertile
  • Has potash, phosphoric acid and lime
  • Sugarcane, paddy, wheat
  • Intensively cultivated
  • Densely populated

Black Soil

  • Black
  • Called regur soil
  • Good for cotton
  • Deccan and basaltic rock
  • Lava flow
  • Malwa, MP, Chhattisgarh
  • Fine Clay, can hold moisture
  • Rich in CaCO3, Mg, potash & lime
  • Poor in phosphorous
  • Deep cracks in hot weather
  • Sticky when wet

Red & Yellow Soil

  • On crystalline igneous rocks
  • In low rainfall in the eastern and southern parts of the Deccan plateau.
  • In Orissa, Chhattisgarh, southern of mid-Ganga plain, piedmont zone of Western Ghats.
  • Red due to diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks
  • Yellow when it occurs in a hydrated form

Laterite Soil

  • From Latin β€œlater” meaning Brick
  • High rain & high temperature
  • Result of intense leaching due to rain
  • Low humus
  • Good for manure and fertilizers
  • Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, MP, hilly areas of Orissa and Assam
  • Red laterite soils - Tamil Nadu, AP and Kerala – Cashew nuts

Arid Soil

  • Red to Brown
  • Sandy and saline
  • Dry climate, high temp. , fast evaporation
  • Lower horizons with kankar nodules

Forest Soil

  • Hills and mountains
  • Loam and silt in valley sides
  • Coarse in upper slopes
  • In snow covered areas – acidic with low humus
  • Soil in lower valleys and alluvial fans - fertile

Soil Erosion

  • Deforestation
  • Over-grazing
  • Construction and mining
  • Running water makes channels – gullies
  • Land unfit for cultivation – Badlands (Chambal)
  • Top soil is washed away – sheet erosion

Conservation

  • Contour Ploughing – decrease flow – along contour lines
  • Terrace cultivation – restrict erosion (W. & C. Himalayas)
  • Strip Cropping – large fields to strips
  • Shelter belts – rows of trees – stabilize sand dunes
  • People՚s management – Sukhomanjari village & Jhabua

Developed by: