NCERT Class 11 India Physical Geography Chapter 1: Introduction

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N-S: 3214 km

E-W: 2933 km

Title: Maps

The mainland of India, extends from Kashmir in the north to Kanniyakumari in the south and Arunachal Pradesh in the east to Gujarat in the west. India՚s territorial limit further extends towards the sea upto 12 nautical miles (about 21.9 km) from the coast.

Our southern boundary extends upto 6°45՚ N latitude in the Bay of Bengal

82°30 ′ E has been selected as the ′ standard meridian ′ of India. Indian Standard Time is ahead of Greenwich Mean Time by 5 hours and 30 minutes

IST – Time Zone

Southern part of the country lies within the tropics and the northern part lies in the sub-tropical zone or the warm temperate zone

Variation of nearly 30 degrees, which causes a time difference of nearly two hours between the easternmost and the westernmost parts of our country

India with its area of 3.28 million sq. km accounts for 2.4 per cent of the world՚s land surface area and stands as the seventh largest country in the world

Physiography - Introduction

Rivers - Ganga, Brahmaputra, Mahanadi, Krishna, Godavari and Kaveri

Himalayas in the north, Hindukush and Sulaiman ranges in the northwest, Purvachal hills in the north-east


Indian Subcontinent- Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and India

Passes - Khyber, the Bolan, the Shipkila, the Nathula, the Bomdila

Coastline – 6100 km (mainland) and 7517 km (entire coast includes Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshdweep)


Gulf- it is almost surrounded by land with narrow mouth opening .

Strait- strait is a naturally formed narrow passage of water that connects to relatively large water bodies.

India is located in the south-central part of the continent of Asia, bordering the Indian ocean and its two arms extending in the form of Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea

Sri Lanka and Maldives are the two island countries located in the Indian Ocean

Sri Lanka is separated from India by the Gulf of Mannar and Palk Strait

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