Indus Valley Civilization, South, Foreign Invasions, Philosophy

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South

Pandya

  • Sent embassies to the Roman emperor Augustus

Chola

  • Elara conquered Sri Lanka
  • Karikala founded Puhar aka Kaveripatnam which was their capital

Cheras

  • Kerala and parts of TN
  • Senguttavan is the greatest king
  • Roman influence: Muziris. Also built a temple of Augustus

Vellalas – rich peasants

Arasar – ruling class

Pariyars – agricultural labourers

Shrent – artisan guilds

Chalyukyas

  • Badami (Bijapur)
  • Pulakesin II was the important ruler
  • Court poet Ravikirti wrote his eulogy in the Aioli inscription

Pallavas

  • They succeeded the Ikshvakus
  • Kanchipuram was their capital
  • Came in conflict with Kadambas
    • Mayurasharman had founded the Kadambas kingdom (Capital: Vijayanti/Banavasi)
  • Nasrimhavarman occupied the Chalukya capital Vatapi in 642 AD
    • Assumed the title of Vatapikonda
  • Constructed a number of temples
  • Ratha temples at Mahabs built by Nasrimhavarman who founded Mahabs
  • Pattadakal: Papanatha temple and Virupaksha temple
  • Kailashnath temple at Kanchi
Pallava Dynasty

One of the major revolts in the south was the Kalabhras revolt. It was so widespread that it could be put down only through the joint efforts of the Pandyas, the Pallavas and the Chalukyas

Three types of villages: Ur (commoners) , Sabha (Brahmans) , Nagaram (traders etc)

Foreign Invasions

Major events

Table of Major Events
326 - 325 BCAlexander՚s invasion

Literature

Table of Show of Literature
BookAuthor
Mudrarakshasa (play)Vishakhadatta
IndikaMegasthenes
Milind PanhoBuddhist literature of questions of Manender to Nagarjuna
BuddhacharitaAshvaghosha
Saundarananda (Sanskrit kavya)Ashvaghosha
Mahavastu (Buddhist-hybrid Sanskrit)
Divyavandan (Buddhist-hybrid Sanskrit)
KamasutraVatsyayana
CharaksamhitaCharaka
Gathasaptasatti (Prakrit book)Hala (Satavahana king)
Tolkkappiyam (deals with grammar and poetics)
Silappadikaram and Manimekalai are Tamil epicsIIango Adigal (Silappadikaram)
Natural History (Latin)Pliny (Roman writer)
MrichchhakatikaShudraka
AbhijnanashakuntalamKalidasa
AmarakoshaAmarasimha
Romaka Sidhanta (Astronomy)
HarshacharitaBanbhatta
Priyadarshika; Ratnavali; and Nagananda (plays)Harshavardhana
AstadhyayiPanini
MahabhashikaPatanjali
SuryasiddhantaA treatise on astronomy. Authorship disputed.
BrihatsamhitaVarahmira (5th CE)
SushrutsamhitaSushrut (2nd CE)
CharaksamhitaCharak (2nd CE)

Travelers

Table of Travelers
TravelersDuring time ofWork
Megasthenes (ambassador of Seleucus)Chandragupta MauryaIndika
Fa HienChandragupta Vikramaditya
Hsuan TsangHarshavardhana

Pliny wrote Naturalise Historia

Philosophy

Six schools

Table of Six Schools
SchoolPhilosophyMajor proponent
SamkhyaMaterialistic. No god. Later turned spiritualistic. Prakriti- Purusha. Salvation through knowledge acquired through pratyaksha, anumana, shabdaKapila
YogaSlavation through meditation and physical application
NyayaSystem of logic. Salvation through acquisition of knowledge.
VaisheshikaDiscussion of material elements or dravya. Atom theory. (Beginning of physics) . Belief in god.
MimansaVedas contain the eternal truth. Reasoning provided for vedic rituals. Perform vedic rites for salvation.
VedantaBrahmasutra. Brahma is the reality. Atma is identical with Brahma.Shankara (Advaita) – born in Kerala

Ramanuja (Vishistadvaita)

Shuddhadvaita (Vallabha)

LokayataMaterialistic philosophy.Charavaka

Developed by: