Important Development during Governor-General

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Warren Hastings (October, 1774 -February, 1785)

  • Termination of dual ad-ministration in Bengal : Diwani and Nizamat

  • Creation of Board of Revenue -1772

  • In 1772 he created a Diwani and Faujdari Adalat at the district level.

  • To remove the possible clash between the Supreme Court and Sadr Diwani Adalat, he appointed Impey, the Chief Justice of Supreme Court, as Superintendent of Sadr Diwani.

  • Created five custom Houses : Calcutta, Hughli, Murshidabad, Dacca and Patna and duties were lowered to 2 and half percent payable by all merchants.

  • Introduction of 'trial and error' law in revenue system

  • Regulating Act -1773 envisaged a Supreme Court in India

  • In 1776, wrote Code of Gentoo Law

  • Revenue and Judiciary separated.

  • He was conservator of Asiatic Society Rgyal Treasury shifted from Murshidabad to Calcutta

  • Trial of Nand Kumar 1775

  • Regulating Act 1773, appointed him the first governor General along with four Councillors :

    • Clavering

    • Francis

    • Monson

    • Harwell

  • Robert Barker mediated the treaty between Rohilla chief Hafiz Rehmat Khan and Nawab of Oudh.

  • First Anglo-Maratha war took place 1776-1782

  • Wilkins translated Gita and Hitopadesha in English; Brassey Halhed published a Sanskrit grammar in 1778.

  • In 1780, J.A.Hicky starts a weekly paper called Bengal Gazette or Calcutta General Advertiser.

  • In 1782, Syed Gulam Hussain writes the Siyar-ul-Mutaqherin.

  • In 1784, The Calcutta Gazette published.

  • Sir William Jones laid the foundation of Asiatic Society in 1784.

  • In T785, Madras Courier published.

  • Took bribe from Chait Singh - 2 lakhs and Nawab of Oudh -10 lakhs.

Sir John Macpherson (Officiating) (February, 1785-September, 1786)

Earl (Marquess) Cornwallis (September, 1786-October, 1793)

  • In 1789, The Bombay Herald published.

  • In 1790, The Bombay Courier published.

  • In 1791, Sanskrit College, Benaras, founded by Jonathan Duncan.

  • In 1792, The Bombay Gazette amalgamated with the Bombay Herald.

  • The Permanent settlement introduced in 1793,

  • The Police System was introduced.

  • Sovereignty of law - all the official will be responsible to the Courts.

  • The district Faujdari Adalats presided over by Indian judges abolished and in their place four circuit courts were established, presided over by the European covenanted servants. The Sadr Nizamat Adalat at Murshidabad so far presided by a Mohammadan Judge was replaced by a similar court set up at Calcutta comprising Governor-General and Members of Supreme Council.

Map of Warren Hastings empier in India

Warren Hastings Empier in India

  • Cornwallis Code was introduced in 1793 with following features:

  • It was based on the concept of separation of powers

  • The Collector was the head of the revenue administration and divested him of all the judicial and magisterial powers.

  • District Judge was appointed as the head of the judiciary at the district level.

  • A gradation of civil courts was set up.

  • The distinction between revenue and civil cases abolished.

  • Regulation IX of 1793 amended the law of evidence by providing that the religious persuasions of witnesses shall not be considered as a bar to the conviction or condemnation of a prisoner.

  • The number of Collector-ship reduced from 36 to 23. *The strength of Board of Trade was reduced from 11 to 5.

Sir John Shore (Lord Teignmouth) (October, 1793-March, 1798)

Sir a. Clarke (Officiating) ( March, 1798-May, 1798)

Richard Weilesley, Earl of Mornington (May, 1798-July, 30,1805)

  • Called himself as Tiger of Bengal.

  • Opened Administrative Training College

  • In 1794, the Board of Trade founded.

  • Subsidiary Alliance was the key point of the British policy. Dupleix was the first to start the subsidiary alliance.

  • Nizam of Hyderabad (September 1798 and 1800),

  • Mysore (1799)

  • Tanjore (October 1799)

  • The Nawab of Oudh (November 1801)

  • The Peshwa (December 1801)

  • The Bhonsle Raja of Berar (December 1803)

  • The Sindhia (February 1804)

  • The Rajput states of :

  • Jodhpur

  • Jaipur

  • Macheri

  • Bundi

  • Bharatpur

  • He sent a British envoy Mehdi Ali Khan to the court of Shah of Persia, later he sent John Marshall

  • After the Fourth Anglo-Mysore war (1799) We-llesley annexed the South Kanara coast, Wynaad in the south-east, Coimbatore arid Darupuram in the south-east besides Seringapatnam.

  • Wellesley passes a regulation for controlling the press. No newspaper was to be published at all until the manuscript of the whole paper were submitted to arid approved by the Government.

  • Christian missionaries establish a printing press at Serampore.

  • Foundation of Fort William College.

  • By a revised subsidiary treaty forced on the Nizam (12 October 1800) and later ceded to the Company the districts of Bellary and Cuddapah.

  • By the treaty (10 November 1801) forced the Nawab-Wazir of Oudh, the company acquired Rohilkhand, Farrukhabad, Mainpuri, Etawah, Kanpur, Fatehgarh, Allahabad, Azimgarh, Basti and Gorakhpur.

  • After the second Anglo-Maratha war (1802-03) the Company's territorial gains included the Upper Doab, all territories north of the Rajput States of Jaipur, Jodh-pur and Gohud, the part of Broach, the Fort of Ahmednagar besides the district of Cuttack in Orissa.

  • Wellesley took the administration of Tanjore (25th October 1799), Surat (March 1800) and Carnatic (31st July 1801)

  • In 1801, Ramram Basu's Pratapadityacharita

  • In 1803, Raja Rammohan Roy writes the Tuhfat-ul-Muwahhiddin

Marquess Cornwallis (Second Administration) (July 30, 1805-October, 1805)

Sir George Barlow (Officiating) (October, 1805-July,1807)

  • Slave trade abolished in the British Empire in 1807

Earl of Minto I (July, 1807-October 4,1813)

  • Importation of slaves into India forbidden.

  • In 1812, William Carey writes the Itihasamala in Bengali.

Marquess of Hastings (Earl of Moira) (October 4, 1813-January 1823)

  • Terminated the priorities of Magistrates.

  • Bengal Tenancy Act 1822

  • Responsible for the suppression of the Pindaris.

  • Anglo-Nepal War 1814-1816: General Gillespie and Martindell suffered loses but Nicholls and Gardner succeeded in capturing Kumaon in April 1815; General Ochterlony defeated Amar Singh Thapa in May 1815. The Gorhas accepted the Treaty of Sagauli in March 1816.

  • Charles Metcalfe, the Resident at Delhi, was entrusted to capture Rajput states of Udaipur, Jaipur, Jodhpur and also brought smaller Rajput states like Kota, Bundi, Karauli, Banswara, Dungarpur and Pratapgarh and agreements with Bikaner andJaisalmer.

  • After Maratha's defeat Company acquired Bundelkhand, Malwa and Hindustan.

John Adam (Officiating) (January-August 1, 1823)

Lord Amherst (August 1,1823-March, 1828)

  • Equal footings with the Mughals with Akbar II

  • In 1823, Supreme Court of Judicature established at Bombay.

  • 1824-1826, the First Burmese War

  • In 1824, Barrackpore Mutiny.

William Butterworth Bayley (Officiating) (March, 1828-July 4,1828)

Lord William Benti-Nck (July 4,1828- March, 1833)

  • Inquiry into the titles of Inam land.

  • In 1829-1837, suppression of Thugi system

  • In 1829 Sati system was abolished and Khasis revolted.

  • In 1830, annexation of Cachar took place.

  • In 1831, rebellion of Titu Mir and Kols.

  • Court of Vernacular started,

  • Educational Reforms

  • Suppression of Child sacrifices and Infanticide : although it had been declared illegal by the Bengal Regulation XXI of 1795 and Regulation III of 1804.

  • Removal of humiliating discrimination in the recruitment to Public Services.

  • Appointed Macaulay as the President of the Committee.

  • Abolished Provincial Circuits courts; a separate sadr Diwani Adalat was set up at Allahabad and Sadr Nizamat adalat at Delhi was set up.

  • Annexed Mysore in 1831, Coorg in 1834, Central Cachar (November 1834).

  • He concluded a treaty with Ranjit Singh.

Lord William Benti-Nck (March, 1833-March 20,1835)

  • In 1834 : Annexation of Coorg; Macaulay appointed as Law Member; and Agra became a province.

  • In 1835, Jaintia was annexed.

Sir Charles Metcalfe (Officiating) (March, 1835-March. 1836)

  • Passed education resolution

  • Abolition of Press restrictions

  • Rebellion in Gumsur.

Earl of Auckland (March, 1836-February,1842)

  • Famine in north India took place in 1837.

  • In 1838, Tripartite Treaty between Shah Shuja, Ranjit Singh and the British.

  • Deposition and deportation of the Raja of Satara.

  • First Afghan war started (1839-1842)

Lord Ellenborough (February, 1842-June, 1844)

  • Slavery abolished

  • In 1843, military operations against Sindhia took place.

William Wilberforce Bird (June, 1844-JuIy, 1844)

Sir Henry (Viscount) Hardinge (July, 1844-January, 1848)

  • In 1844, rebellion took place in Kolhapur.

  • English education declared as essential qualification for public services.

  • In 1845, the Danish possession sold to the English.

  • 1845-46 : The First Anglo-Sikh war

  • In 1846, the rebellion of Khonds took place.

Earl of Dalhousie (January, 1848-February, 1856)

  • Annexation of Punjab (1849)

  • Annexation of Lower Burma or Pegu (1852), Second Anglo-Burmese War

  • Annexation of Sikkim in 1850

  • In 1853 a new treaty was forced on the Nizam of Hyderabad compelling him to cede Berar to Company.

  • Doctrine of Lapse: Satara (1848), Jaitpur (1849), Sambhalpur (1849), Baghat (1850), Udaipur (1852), Jhansi (1853), and Nagpur (1854).

  • In 1856 Oudh was annexed on the pretext of the misgovernment.

  • Bengal was placed under the charge of Lt. Governor.

  • For newly acquired territories, he introduced a system of centralized control, known as Non-regulation system.

  • Headquarters of Bengal Artillery was shifted from Calcutta to Meerut and gradually shifted to Shimla in 1865.

  • A new irregular Force was created in Punjab.

  • In the educational sphere: Charles Wood, the President of the Board of Control, headed the committee, known as Wood's Despatch.

  • The first Railway line connecting Bombay and Thane was laid in 1853.

  • Dalhousie can be regarded as the father of the Electric Telegraph in India. O'Shanghnessy was appointed the Superintendent of the Telegraph department in 1852. Telegraph line from Calcutta to Agra.

  • In 1853, recruitment of the Covenanted Civil Service by competitive examination.

  • A new Post Office act was passed in 1854, Postage stamps were issued for the first time.

  • Public Works Department (PWD) was introduced; Ganges Canal was introduced.

  • In 1855 : (a) Santhal insurrection took place; (b) Treaty with Dost Muhammad signed; (c) abolition of the title of the Nawab of the Carnatic.

Map of Empier of Dalhousie

Empier of Dalhousie

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