Classical Indian Philosophy Prabhakara and Kumarika School of Purva-Mimamsa

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Classical Indian Philosophy: Prabhakara and Kumarika school of Purva-Mimamsa (Philosophy)

Introduction

  • Jaimini wrote the Mimamsa-sutra.
  • His sutra has been commented upon by a number of commentators.
  • The two most important commentators amongst the list are Prabhakara and Kumarila Bhatta.
  • The two schools within the Purva-Mimamsa have been named after these two commentators, namely;
  • the Prabhakara school of Purva Mimamsa
  • the Kumarila school of Purva-Mimamsa.
  • Sabra swami՚s commentary on Mimamsa-sutra has been explained by both, Kumarila and Prabhakara individually, they both share some similarity and differences on important philosophical concepts.
  • Prabhakar՚s commentary is named as Brhati, which has been further commented upon by Shalikantha.
  • On the other hand, Kumarila՚s work is divided into three parts;
    • Shloka-vartika
    • Tantra-vartika
    • Tuptika

Validity of Knowledge

  • Both, Kumarila and Prabhakara accept the theory of svatah-pramanya-vada.
  • According to them both, knowledge is valid in itself.
  • In other words, knowledge is intrinsically valid.
  • However, the definition of knowledge is different for them.
  • According to Kumarila, valid knowledge is anubhuti or apprehension produced by no defects and no contradiction by subsequent knowledge.
  • According to Prabhakara, valid knowledge is anubhuti or apprehension. It is immediate, direct and valid in nature.

The Pramanas

  • According to both Kumarila and Prabhakara, knowledge is of two types;
    • Mediate knowledge
    • Immediate knowledge
  • Perception is an example of immediate knowledge or direct apprehension.
  • Both accept sabda or the eternity of Vedas is valid knowledge in-itself.
  • According to Prabhakara, there are five means or sources of valid knowledge or pramanas. They are;
    • Perception
    • Inference
    • verbal testimony
    • comparison
    • postulation
  • According to him, perception is defined as direct apprehension.
  • Inference involves previous knowledge or involves the things already known.
  • Arthapatti or postulation remains inconsistent without assumption.
  • According to Kumarila, there are six means or sources of valid knowledge. They are;
    • Perception
    • inference
    • comparison
    • postulation
    • non-apprehension
    • verbal testimony
  • Perception is direct apprehension with is free from all defects.
  • Inference deals with no previous knowledge.
  • Arthapatti helps us reconcile between the two inconsistent facts.
  • Lastly, non-apprehension or abhava is an independent pramana.

Questions

1. Shloka-vartika is the work of

A. Prabhakara

B. Kumarila

C. Jaimini

D. Sabra swami

Answer: B

2. ________ accepts two kinds of knowledge; mediate and immediate

A. Prabhakara

B. Kumarila

C. Jaimini

D. Both A and B

Answer: D

3. Perception is direct apprehension with is free from all defects is accepted by

A. Prabhakara

B. Kumarila

C. Jaimini

D. Both A and B

Answer: B

4. Prabhakar՚s commentary on Mimamsa-sutra is called

A. Shloka-vartika

B. Tantra-vartika

C. Tuptika

D. Brhati

Answer: D

#Schools

#Prabhakara

#Kumarila

#Differences

#Literature

#Purvamimamsa

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