Indian Logic YouTube Lecture Handouts: Epistemology, Indian Logic, Philosophy, Darshana, Knowledge for Tripura PSC Exam

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Indian Philosophy: Epistemology, Ontology, Schools of Philosophy, Darshana & Knowledge


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‘Epistemology’ is derived from the Greek words ‘Episteme’ (knowledge or science) and ‘Logos’ (knowledge or information) . William L. Rease defined Epistemology as the study of the theory of knowledge.

What is knowledge, what is the origin of knowledge, what is the scope of knowledge, what are the various sources of knowledge and what is the validity of knowledge

J. F. Ferrier divided philosophy into ontology and epistemology.

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Ontology is the philosophical study of being. More broadly, it studies concepts that directly relate to being, in particular becoming, existence, reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.

Philosophy (philosophia, literally “love of wisdom” ) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. The term was probably coined by Pythagoras (c. 570 – 495 BCE) .

Indian Logic

  • As lamp՚s light shows physical things, the knowledge illuminates all objects aiming to it.
  • Knowledge is termed as understanding (buddhi) , apprehension (upalabdhi) , concepts judgments′, awareness and cognition or cognizance՚s which are synonymous with each other.

Schools of Philosophy

School Philosophy
  • Astika (orthodox) means one who believes in the authority (testimony) of the Vedas. All the six Brahmanical systems (Mimamsa, Vedanta, Samkhya, Yoga, Nyaya and Vaisesika) accept the Vedic authority. There are three Schools of Mimamsa, namely, the schools of Bhatta, Prabhakara, and Murari Misra.
  • Nastika (heterodox) means those who do not believe in authority of Vedas. Nastika School has three systems, namely, the Carvaka, Buddha and Jaina.


  • darsanas (Indian schools of thought, philosophies, world views, or teachings)


  • Knowledge is a quality generated in the soul.
  • Relation between the soul and the body.
  • Prama: True knowledge is known as prama (yathartha) . Knowledge which corresponds to real nature of its object is valid. For example “fire is hot” . Pramana provides an instrument getting such true knowledge.
  • Aprama: Knowledge that is not true is known as aprama (aythartha) . Knowledge which does not correspond to the real character of an object is invalid. For example, “fire is cold” .
  • If the generating conditions are sound, knowledge is valid, if they are defective, knowledge is invalid.