Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)

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  • Enhance livelihood security by providing 100 days guaranteed employment to every rural household
  • “Stellar Example of Rural Employment” by World Bank
  • It was earlier known as the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
  • It was passed on 7th September 2005
  • Proposed by the P. V Narasimha Rao Government in 1991 for employment and development
  • It aims to provide 100 days wage employment
  • It aims to create durable assets
  • Employment to be provided within 5 km of employees residence and within 15 days
  • It is to be implemented by Gram Panchayat
  • It help in protecting environment and fostering equity
  • MGNREGA Strengthens decentralization in Indian Democracy

Salient Features of the Act

  • Right based framework
  • Time bound guarantee
  • Guaranteed Employment
  • Labour intensive work
  • Decentralized planning
  • Work Site facilities
  • Women Empowerment
  • Transparency and Accountability
  • Funding

Changes in MGNREGA Structures

  • (2009 - 10) - 90 % wages for males and 26 % wages for females higher from market
  • (2011 - 12) - Wages were lower for both than market
  • (2017 - 18) - Private market wages higher than MGNREGA wages
  • Due to Covid-19, Workforce has migrated to rural areas from cities
  • Therefore, to tackle Migrant crises the Finance Minister of Government of India on 26th March 2020 announced that MGNREGA workers will get ₹ 2000
  • Rs31000 crore funds for testing, screening and providing better Health care facilities

Underlying Challenges

  • Inadequate Financing
  • Delay in payment of wages
  • Ineffective role of Panchayati Raj institutions
  • Large number of incomplete works
  • Fabrication of Job Cards

Way Forward

Short Term Measures

  • State Government should immediately start work in villages
  • Local Bodies must be Active
  • Adequate Facilities must be provided at work site
  • Speed up Payment in Cash

Long Term Measures

  • Strengthening of the authority of Gram Panchayat to sanction work and payment
  • Coordinating with other schemes
  • creating awareness in Rural areas about Government Policies

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