Psychology Study Material: Ovaries and Other Endocrine Glands

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Two groups of female sex hormones are produced in the ovaries:

  • Estrogens and
  • Progesterone

Contribute to the development and function of the female reproductive organs and sex characteristics


Estrogen (on the onset of puberty) activates/promotes:

  • Development of female bodily characteristics.
  • Distribution of fats in the body.
  • Maturation of reproductive organs .


  • causes the uterine lining to become thick, preparing uterus for pregnancy.
  • Together both progesterone and estrogen are responsible for a number of changes occurring in the uterus.

Other Endocrine Glands

In addition to the major endocrine glands and their system, there are various other organs, which are involved, in some hormonal activity or function.

Other Endocrine Glands

These include:

  • Thymus
  • Stomach
  • Small intestines
  • Heart, and
  • Placenta
  • Thymosin

Hormone produced by the thymus gland, which has an important role in the development of the body՚s immune system.


  • Gastric mucosa (lining of the stomach) produces a hormone, called gastrin that is secreted when the food is present in the stomach.
  • Stimulates the production of ‘hydrochloric acid’ and the enzyme ‘pepsin’ , which are involved in the digestion of food.

Secretin and Cholecystokinin

  • The mucosa of the small intestine secretes these hormones.
  • Secretin stimulates the pancreas to produce a neutralizing agent bicarbonate-rich fluid that neutralizes the stomach acid.


  • Stimulates contraction of the gallbladder, which result in the releases of bile.
  • Also activate the pancreas to secrete digestive enzyme.
  • Atrial Natriiuretic Hormone, or Atriopeptin
  • Heart also functions as an endocrine organ
  • In addition to its major role of pumping blood, has special cells in the wall of the upper chambers of the heart ‘atria’ , secretes hormone called atrial natriiuretic hormone, or atriopeptin.


  • Develops in the pregnant female
  • It is a source of nourishment and gaseous exchange for the developing Fetus
  • Also serves as a temporary endocrine gland
  • Chorionic gonadotropin: One hormone that placenta secretes in human beings.