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Watch Video Lecture on YouTube: Coordinate System & Time Calculations  Fundamentals of Geography
Coordinate System & Time Calculations  Fundamentals of Geography
Directions, Coordinate System & Time Zones
Agenda

Understanding directions

Coordinate system and degree

Latitude and Longitude

Time and Date Delineation
To download sample questions and notes visit www.doorsteptutor.com
Direction on a Map

Why draw maps with north at the top?

Standard convention.

Compasses are made to measure to the magnetic north pole of the Earth.
Finding the North?

Left hand to west

Right hand to east

Face towards north
North on the Map

Magnetic north is measured by a compass.

Grid north follows the grid lines of the coordinate system the map is made on.

True north corresponds to the Earth’s axis, the North Pole.
Magnetic Declination

Difference or angle between magnetic north and true north

Topographic map depicts difference
Measure Direction on a Map

Use protractor or compass to measure degrees or angle from north line

Both measure use circle of 360 degrees
Cartesian Coordinate System
Map Grid

Imaginary lines crossing the globe

Meridian lines or longitude are drawn northsouth

Parallel lines or latitudes are drawn eastwest

Coordinate point is intersection of latitude and longitude
Coordinate Systems
Two common coordinate systems are:

Geographic coordinate system

Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)
Geographic Coordinate System

Latitude lines run eastwest and are parallel.

Longitude lines run northsouth & are called meridians.

Lines are numbered in degrees, minutes and seconds similar to a clock.

Degrees is used as measurement tool because angles are always measured in degrees.
Latitude & Longitude
LatitudeLongitude
Understanding Terms

Each degree is divided into 60 minutes

Each minute is divided into 60 seconds

Holds true for both latitude and longitude

Latitude: Distance from equator along Y axis

Longitude: Distance from prime meridian along X axis – total 360 meridians (180 east and 180 west of prime meridian)
Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)

UTM lines are straight on global map

UTM is a type of projection, calculated to make a flat map of the round Earth.

UTM zones are numbered east to west and lettered north to south.

Each zone is equivalent to 6^{o} and is measured in meters.
UTM
Problem 1: Find Out Location on Map?
Problem 2: Basics of Time

Problem: If it is noon where you are, would it be before or after noon for someone that is east of you?
After noon

Recall, the sun rises in the east and sets in the west

As you look down from the north pole, the earth would rotate counterclockwise

If the sun is just beginning to rise in California, then the sun would be near noon in New York, so…

As you travel east, time becomes later

Time Zone

Earth is divided into 24 time zones!
because the Earth Rotates

1 Time zone for every 15^{0 } of Longitude

The Earth Spins 360^{ 0} in 24 hours

hours

Or longitude is 4 minutes


We measure from Prime Meridian in Greenwich England

Every to the East = +1 Hour

Every to the West =  1 Hour
Greenwich, England is Initiation Point for Time Zones
World rotates west to east (counterclockwise), so time zones to the east are ahead of the those time zones to the west
Problem 3 – Time Zone
How many hours difference is there between Tokyo?

So the difference is

Since one hour is 15^{0} longitude

So it is hours.

Now Tokyo is east of Rome, so it is 8 hours later in Tokyo.
International Date Line

Located in midPacific Ocean near 180° longitude.

Crossing IDL from east to west, it’s the next day (+1 day)

Crossing IDL from west to east, it’s the previous day (1 day)
Problem 4  IDL

It is 9 AM Saturday in California what time is it in Australia?


So, it is per hour = 7 hours

So total time difference is 7 hours, since travelling east to west, time becomes earlier it is 7 hours before, i.e., 2 AM

Also you are crossing IDT east to west, so it becomes next day, therefore time in Australia is 2 AM Sunday
Daylight Savings Time

Used mainly in USA to add an “extra” hour of daylight in the afternoon during spring/summer

“Spring forward and Fall back”
Problem 5  Sunrise/Sunset Time Corrections

If sunset in Winnipeg what is the time for sunset in Manitoba

Difference is

longitude is 4 minutes

longitude isminutes

So, it is 32 minutes late, i.e., 5:25 PM +32 minutes = 5:57 PM
Time Zones  World Map
Jet Lag

Medical phenomena that occurs due to crossing the various time zones

Characterized by extreme fatigue, disorientation and loss of appetite.

Sleep is seen as one of the best cures for jet lag, as is exposure to sunlight.

It is considered that it takes 1 day per time zone to recover from jet lag.
Manishika