NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 4: The Mughal Empire YouTube Lecture Handouts

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NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 4: The Mughal Empire

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  • Expanded kingdom from 16th to 17th Century

  • PM address Independence Day Speech from Red Fort (Residence of Mughal Emperors)

Image of Political Map of Asia

Image of Political Map of Asia

Image of Political Map of Asia



  • Succeeded to throne at 12 years

  • 1st on throne of Ferghana in 1494

  • Uzbegs invaded and was forced to leave

  • Seized Kabul in 1504

  • 1526: Defeated Ibram Lodi in Battle of Panipat

  • Captured Agra & Delhi

  • Afghans were threat to Mughals

  • 1527: Defeated Rana Sanga, Rajput rulers and allies at Khanua

  • 1528: Defeated the Rajputs at Chanderi


  • Divided inheritance based on father’s will

  • Each brother given a province

  • Sher Khan defeated him at Chausa (1539) and Kanauj (1540)

  • He fled to Iran

  • Got help from Safavid Shah

  • Recaptured Delhi in 1555

  • Died in Accident


  • Emperor at 13 years

  • Under Bairam Khan – Campiagns against Suris and Afghans

  • Suppressed revolt of his half-brother Mirza Hakim & Uzbegs

  • 1568: Sisodiya capital of Chittor was seized

  • 1569: Ranthambhor was seized

  • Military campaigns to Gujarat, Bihar, Bengal & Odisha

  • Expansion of empire to NW

  • Qandahar was seized from the Safavids

  • Kashmir was annexed

  • Kabul annexed after death of Mirza Hakim

  • Annexed Deccan, Berar, Khandesh and parts of Ahmadnagar

  • Ibadat khana: various religious people discussed (religious scholars who emphasised ritual and dogma were often bigots)

  • Sulh-i-Kul or universal peace – ethics, honesty and peace – was followed by Jahangir & Shah Jahan

Image of Specify Mughal Empire In Map

Image of Specify Mughal Empire in Map

Image of Specify Mughal Empire In Map


  • Sisodiya ruler of Mewar, Amar Singh accepted his rule

  • Known as Prince Salim

  • Wife: Nur Jahan (Mehrunnisa) – loyal & supportive – had seals and coins with her name

Shah Jahan

  • Prince Khurram

  • Afghan noble Khan Jahan Lodi was defeated

  • Qandahar was lost to Safavids

  • 1632: Annexed Ahmadnagar

  • Aurangzeb was victorious and his three brothers, including Dara Shukoh were killed

  • Was imprisoned for the rest of his life in Agra


  • 1663: Ahoms defeated but rebelled again in 1680

  • Initially successful against Shivaji (insulted him when he came to accept Mughal authority)

  • Sent armies to Deccan

  • 1685: Bijapur annexed

  • 1687: Golconda annexed

  • 1698: Against Marathas who followed guerrilla warfare

  • After his death, succession conflict amongst his sons


  • Primogeniture: Eldest son inherited his father’s estate

  • Coparcenary inheritance or division of inheritance amongst all the sons – Mughals

Relations to Other Rulers

  • Jahangir’s mother: Kachhwaha princess, daughter of Rajput ruler of Amber

  • Shah Jahan’s mother: Rathor princess, daughter of Rajput ruler of Marwar

  • Sisodiyas did not accept Mughal authority – defeated once by Mughals but land (watan) given back as assignments (watan jagir)

  • In Mughal Service: Mansabdars (hold rank mansab)

  • Grading system used by Mughals to fix rank, salary & military responsibilities

  • Rank & salary determined by Zat

  • Higher Zat, more prestigious position with larger salary

  • Maintain cavalry or sawar

  • Mansabdars got salaries as revenue assignments called jagirs similar to iqtas. However, unlike muqtis, most mansabdars did not actually reside in or administer their jagirs.

  • Akbar’s period: jagirs were assessed

  • Aurangzeb’s period: actual sum was less than granted sum & huge number of mansabdars. Long wait & shortage of jagirs. Peasantry suffered a lot.

Zabt & Zamindars

Major tax was on produce of peasantry

Taxes paid by rural elite

Zamindars were intermediaries

Todarmal (revenue minister of Akbar) carried crop survey – tax fixed on each crop in cash

Province divided into revenue circle with revenue rates – Zabt – not possible in Gujarat & Bengal

Provinces divided into subas & subas had subedars (political & military functions), diwans (financial)

  • Military paymaster (bakhshi)

  • Minister in charge of religious and charitable patronage (sadr)

  • Military commanders (faujdars)

  • Town police commander (kotwal)

Abul Fazal wrote Akbar Nama in 3 volumes

  • Volume 1: Akbar’s ancestors

  • Volume 2: Event of Akbar’s reign

  • Volume 3: Ain-i-Akbari – Administration and revenue & cultural details – statistics on crops and yields

Shah Jahan period: 5.6% mansabdars received 61.5% of total revenue.

Most income was spent on salary and goods – benefitted artisans and peasantry

Poorest lived from hand to mouth – economic strata created

Mughal elite became very powerful

Mughals declined and servants became powerful – dynasties like Awadh and Hyderabad came into power


  • Queen Elizabeth I (dynasty Tudors) – conflict b/w Catholics and Protestants (reformed church) – tried to establish independence of Church of England from Rome

  • Conflicted with Phillip II from Spain & defeated them

  • Supported playwrighters like Shakespeare & poets like Edward Spenser (wrote epic poem called The Faerie Queene in her praise)

Contemporaries of Akbar

  • Ottoman Turkey, Sultan Suleyman: Al-Qanuni or lawgiver (1520-1566)

  • Safavid ruler of Iran: Shah Abbas (1588-1629)

  • Russian ruler, Czar Ivan IV Vasilyevich or “Ivan the terrible” (1530-1584)

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