Vedic Literature

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Important Statements in Veda: Rigveda

Kaushitiki/Sankhyayana Brahmana

  • Doctrine of transmigration of soul: Aitterya Brahmana
  • Aitterya wrote Aaitterya Brahmana. His son was Mahidas.
  • It mentions Andhras, Pulindas, Mutibs and other tribes.
  • It says, “Brahmana is a seeker of livelihood, receiver of gifts and removable at will (of the raj an) ” .
  • It says, “Vaisyas are tribute payers” .
  • It says, “Sudras are servants of other, to be oppressed and beaten at will” .
  • Story of Harishchandra.
  • Ajigarta sold his son Sunehsepa for 100 cows.
  • Visvamitra asked his 50 sons to leave the house as they disobeyed him.
  • First reference to ‘sresthi’ — leader of the guild.
  • Mentions asrama system for the first time.
  • It divides the region into five parts. Accordingly it describes five types of rulerships:
  • Gives the story of origin of kinship in a legend.

Kaushitiki Aranyaka

  • Expounds the pranagnihotra - the fire oblation through breath, a substitute for the basic rite.

Panchavis Brahmana

  • It refers to ratnins as ‘viras’ .

Chhandyogya Upanishad

  • It is the oldest Upanishad along with Brihadaranyak Upanishad.
  • It says, “In heaven all are equal” .
  • First appearance of idea of rebirth.
  • It mentions first three ashrams for the first time.
  • Story of Satyakam Javali.
  • Story of Pravahan Javali (who taught a Brahman Svetaketu Aruneya) .
  • It categorized chandals with dogs and pigs. ″
  • The discussion on similarity of ‘atma’ (soul) and ‘Bhrama’ between Uddalak Aruni and his son Svetaketu Aruneya.

Ken Upanishad

  • Story of Yaksha.

Rivers Mentioned in Ring Veda

  • Vitasta
  • Jhelum
  • Chenab
  • Askini
  • Kumbha
  • Kabul
  • Kubha
  • Drishadavati
  • Chautang
  • Gomati
  • Gomal
  • Kumu
  • Kurrum
  • Purushni
  • Sadinira
  • Gandak
  • Ravi
  • Shutudri
  • Sutlej
  • Vipasha
  • Beas
  • Krumu
  • Kurram

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