Goh Cheng Leong Chapter 25 – Arctic or Polar Climate YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Goh Cheng Leong Chapter 25: Arctic or Polar Climate

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Image of Arctic or Polar Type

Image of Arctic or Polar Type

Image of Arctic or Polar Type

Image of World Map

Image of World Map

Image of World Map

  • North of Arctic Circle

  • Ice-Caps – Greenland & highland of high latitude regions – permanent snow cover

  • Tundra climate – lowlands with few ice free months – coastal Greenland, North Canada, Alaska & Arctic seaboard of Eurasia

  • Ice Cap – Antarctica in SH - single stretch of ice-cap – permanent ice of 10,000 feet

Climate

  • Very low temperature

  • Range from Equation (around 4 months have temperature above freezing point)

  • Winters – long & severe (weeks of continuous darkness)

  • Summers – cool and brief

  • Sun rays occur as faint rays – reflected by ground snow or ice melting

  • Soil water is frozen and summer heat can thaw for 6 inch of soil

  • Frost and blizzards are commonly seen – sometimes can be hazardous

  • Coastal Areas – Warm water meets cold land then thick fog develops

  • Precipitation as snow in winters & varies from ice crystals to snowflakes

  • 10-12 inches of snow make 1 inch of rain

👌 Convectional rain is absent – due to low rate of evaporation and lack of moisture in cold polar air

  • Summer precipitation – rain or sleet

  • Anticyclones over ice caps

  • Coastal areas – cyclones (tendency towards winter maximum when cyclonic activity is greatest) – rainfall upto 37 inches recorded

Vegetation

  • Tundra type – few plants can survive – deficiency in heat

  • No trees

  • Mosses, lichens and sedges

  • Drainage is poor – subsoil is permanently frozen

Image of Plants In The Tundra

Image of Plants in the Tundra

Image of Plants In The Tundra

  • Hollows – ponds, marshes & waterlogged areas

  • Sheltered areas – birch, willow and alder

  • Coastal areas – hardy grass & reindeer moss (pasture for herbivores like reindeer)

  • Summers – berry-bearing bushes, Arctic flowers as Arctic Prairies

  • Birds migrate in summer back to polar areas

  • Animals – Wolf, Fox, Musk-Ox, Arctic Hare & Lemmings

Image of Animals Polar Climate

Image of Animals Polar Climate

Image of Animals Polar Climate

Human Activities

  • Confined to coasts

  • Plateaus and mountains are inhabitable and snow covered

  • Semi-nomadic life

  • Eskimos – around 28,000 – hunters, fishers, food gatherers – now in permanent huts

Image of Polar Eskimo

Image of Polar Eskimo

Image of Polar Eskimo

  • Polar Eskimos around Thule in NW Greenland – uncertain life – winters (compact igloos) & summers (portable tents of skins)

    Image of Igloos

    Image of Igloos

    Image of Igloos

  • Food – fish, seal, walrus, polar bear

  • Hunt caribou (Reindeer in America) for meat, milk, fat, skin and bones

  • Now Eskimos have permanent wooden houses with kayaks being replaced by speed boats, use rifles rather than traditional harpoons, now schools are established in those areas

Image of Harpoons & Kayaks

Image of Harpoons & Kayaks

Image of Harpoons & Kayaks

Image of Harpoons

Image of Harpoons

Image of Harpoons

  • Large farms for raising reindeer and breeding fur bearing animals

👌 Nomads of Eurasia

  • Lapps – N. Finland & Scandinavia

  • Samoyeds in Siberia

  • Yakuts in Lena Basin

  • Koryak & Chuckchi in NE Asia

Importance & Recent Developments

👌 Discovery of minerals

  • Gold – Alaska

  • Nickel – Petsamo, USSR

  • Petroleum – Kenai Peninsula, Alaska

  • Copper – Rankin Inlet, Canada

  • Coal – Spitsbergen & Alaska

  • Iron Ore – Lake Superior & now Labrador (railway line to bring ores to St. Lawrence River); Kiruna & Gallivare in Sweden

Ports on Arctic seaboard of Eurasia – Ship timber & fur from Siberia

👌 Igarka Port on Yenisey River – more ice-breakers keep the route open

  • Trying to grow hardy cereals for local needs in Arctic lowlands with warm currents and higher temperatures

  • Healthy air & germ free atmosphere is must for future colonization