NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 7: Lifelines of National Economy YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Means of Transport – Movement

Transport - Movement For Geography Image - 1

Transport - Movement for Geography Image - 1

Transport - Movement For Geography Image - 1

Roadways

Largest in world with 2.3 million km

Why roads are more feasible?

  • Cheaper construction rate

  • Can traverse dissected topography

  • On higher gradients

  • Economical

  • Door to door service

  • As feeder to other transport

Road Density (Length of road per 100 km2)

Types of Roads

  • Golden Quadrilateral / East – West (Silchar to Porbander) & North – South (Srinagar to Kanyakumari)

  • National Highways – Maintained by CPWD (Sher Shah Suri – Delhi Amritsar is NH1; NH 8 – Delhi-Mumbai; NH-7 – Varanasi Kanyakumari)

  • State Highways – by PWD

  • District Highways – by Zila Parishad

  • Other/ Rural Roads – PM Gramin Sadak Yojana

  • Border Roads – North, NE & NW India

  • Metalled – All weather (concrete, bitumen & coal)

  • Unmetalled – half of the total

Railways

  • Integrating since last 150 years

  • It is largest PSU in India

  • 1st train – 1853 – Mumbai to Thane

  • Broad, Meter & narrow gauge

  • Plains, high density, agricultural area

  • Difficult – in Mountains, deserts & landslide areas

  • Diamond Quadrilateral (high speed rail network)

Pipelines

  • Gas/oil/solid

  • Refineries – Barauni, Mathura, Panipat

  • Initial cost is high, running cost is low

  • Oil (Upper Assam to Kanpur) via Guwahati, Barauni & Allahabad

  • From Salaya (Guj.) to Jalandhar (Punjab) via Viramgam, Mathura, Delhi, Sonipat

  • From Hazira (Guj.) to Jagdishpur (UP) via Vijaipur (MP)

Waterways

  • Cheapest

  • Fuel efficient and environment friendly

  • 95% trade in volume & 68% in value by sea

  • Coastline – 7516 km (handle 95% foreign trade)

  • Kandla (after 1947, to relieve Mumbai) as Karachi went to Pak.

  • Mumbai – Biggest, natural and sheltered harbor

  • Jawaharlal Nehru Port to decongest Mumbai

  • Marmagao (export iron) from Goa

  • New Mangalore (Karnataka) – export iron from Kudremukh

  • Kochi – entrance of lagoon with natural harbor

Waterways For Geography For Image - 2

Waterways for Geography for Image - 2

Waterways For Geography For Image - 2

Waterways

  • Tuticorin – Natural harbor, Tamil Nadu

  • Chennai – oldest artificial harbor (next to Mumbai in cargo)

  • Vishakhapatnam – deepest landlocked (iron export)

  • Paradip – Odisha (iron export)

  • Kolkata – inland riverine port – tidal port (Haldia to decongest Kolkata)

  • National Waterways

  • Sagar Mala Project

  • NW -1: On Ganga b/w Allahabad & Haldia

  • NW -2: Brahmaputra b/w Sadiya and Dhubri

  • NW-3: West Coast Canal in Kerala

Airways

  • Fastest

  • Cover difficult terrain

  • Nationalized in 1953

  • UDAN (Ude Desh Ka Aam Naagrik)

Communication

  • Postal network – largest in world

  • Largest telecom in Asia (STD, mobiles)

  • Mass Communication – Radio, TV, newspaper, DD

  • Largest producer of feature films in world

International Trade

  • Exports & Imports (EXIM policy)

  • Balance of trade (favorable or unfavorable)

  • Most trades – Mineral fuels & gold

  • Highest exports – petroleum product & precious stones

  • Highest Imports – China > USA > Saudi Arabia

  • Highest Exports – USA > UAE > Hong Kong

  • Tourism - Revenue