NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 5: Industries Youtube Lecture Handouts

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NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 5: Industries

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NCERT Class 8 Geography

Chapter 5: Industries

Industry

  • Production of Goods – (Steel Industry)

  • Extraction of Minerals – (Coal Mining)

  • Provision for services – (Tourism)

  • Emerging Industries: ‘Sunrise Industries’ – Information Technology, Wellness, Hospitality and Knowledge

Classification – Raw Material Based

  • Agro Based

  • Mineral Based

  • Marine Based

  • Forest Based

Classification –Based on Size

  • Small Scale – Cottage / Household – Pottery, Basket Weaving

  • Large Scale

Classification –Based on Ownership

  • Private Sector

  • Public Sector – Aviation

  • Joint Sector – Maruti Udyog

  • Cooperative Sector - owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both – Amul Dairy

Factors Affecting Location of Industry

Image of Factors Affecting Location of Industry

Image of Factors Affecting Location of Industry

Image of Factors Affecting Location of Industry

Industrial Clusters

  • Mumbai-Pune cluster

  • Bangalore-Tamil Nadu region

  • Hugli region

  • Ahmedabad-Baroda region

  • Chottanagpur industrial belt

  • Vishakhapatnam-Guntur belt

  • Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut region

  • Kollam-Thiruvananthapuram industrial cluster

  • Bhopal Gas Tragedy: Methyl Isocyanate (MIC)

  • Gao Qiao, Chongging, China – Gas Well Blowout

Image of Industrial Clusters

Image of Industrial Clusters

Image of Industrial Clusters

Iron & Steel Industry – As Feeder Industry

Equation

Image of Different Tonnes

Image of Different Tonnes

Image of Different Tonnes

  • Strengthen Steel by aluminum, nickel, and copper

  • Backbone of modern industry

  • Before 1800: Near RM, Power & Water

  • Later: Near Coal fields & Railways

  • After 1950s: Near Sea Ports

India & TISCO

  • Bhilai, Durgapur, Burnpur, Jamshedpur, Rourkela, Bokaro: 4 states of West Bengal, Jharkhand, Orissa and Chhattisgarh

  • Bhadravati and Vijay Nagar in Karnataka

  • Vishakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh

  • Salem in Tamil Nadu

  • TISCO – Private – Jamshedpur - 1907 at Sakchi, near confluence of the rivers Subarnarekha and Kharkai in Jharkhand

  • 32 km away from Kalimati station on the Bengal-Nagpur railway line

  • Coal from Jharia coalfields

  • Iron ore, limestone, dolomite and manganese from Orissa & Chhattisgarh

Pittsburgh

  • Iron from Minnesota

  • Great lakes Waterways

  • Water by Ohio, Monogahela and Allegheny rivers

Fibre

  • Natural fibres: Wool, silk, cotton, linen and jute

  • Manmade fibres: Nylon, polyester, acrylic and rayon

  • Cotton Textile: Oldest Industry, Wheels and Looms to Power Looms

  • Muslins of Dhaka

  • Chintzes of Masulipatnam

  • Calicos of Calicut

  • Gold-wrought cotton pieces of Burhanpur, Surat and Vadodara

  • 1st Modern Textile – Mumbai – 1854 – Warm Moist Climate, Port, RM & labour

Ahmedabad vs. Osaka

  • Ahmedabad: Sabarmati River, 1st in 1859; 2nd largest after Mumbai, Manchester of India – Humid climate, land, labour, road & connectivity, export – non up gradation of machinery

  • Osaka – Manchester of Japan – Yodo River, extensive plains, humid area, Cotton imported from Egypt, India, China and USA; export at low price and good quality

Information Technology

  • Storage, processing and distribution of information

Image of Information Technology Between Banglore - India And Silicon Valley - California

IT- India and Silicon Valley - California

Image of Information Technology Between Banglore - India And Silicon Valley - California

High Technology Industries - Group Together

  • Located near main road/ highways for an easy access

  • Firms can benefit from exchange of knowledge

  • Efficient Services and facilities such as roads, car parks and waste disposal