NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 2: Physical Features of India Youtube Lecture Handouts

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NCERT Class 9 Geography

Chapter 2: Physical Features of India

Basis

  • Variations in rock formation

  • Weathering, erosion & deposition

  • Plate Tectonics – Fold, Fault & Volcanic Activity

  • 3 Plate Boundaries – Convergent, Divergent & Transform

  • Most Volcanoes & Earthquakes occur at plate margins, some within plates

  • Gondwanaland, Angara land & Tethys

  • Himalayas & Northern Plains – Recent – Unstable

  • Northern Plains – Alluvial Deposits

  • Peninsular Plateau – Igneous & Metamorphic Rocks

Physiographic Divisions

  • Himalayan Mountains – KLZS – 2400 km (400 km wide in J& K; 150 km in Arun. P.), Core is granite

  • Northern Plains

  • Peninsular Plateau

  • Indian Desert

  • Coastal Plains

  • Islands

Himalayas

  • Himadri – Great/Inner Himalayas

  • Himachal – Middle (Pir Panjal, Dhauladhar & Mahabharata) – Kangra & Kullu

  • Duns – Dehra Dun, Patli Dun & Kotli Dun

  • Shiwaliks – 10-50 km, height – 900 to 1100 m

  • Purvanchal – Beyond Brahmaputra – Sedimentary (sandstones) – Patkai, Naga, Manipur & Mizo Hills

Northern Plains

  • Indus, Ganga & Brahmaputra – Alluvial

  • 7 lakh sq. km. - 2400 km long & 240-320 km broad

  • Many distributaries

  • Western: Punjab Plains – Indus & tributaries – Doab

  • Ganga Plains: B/w Ghaggar & Teesta

  • Brahmaputra Plains: Bihar, Jharkhand & West Bengal

  • Bhabhar: Parallel to Shiwaliks – Streams Disappear

  • Terai – South of Bhabhar – Wet & Marshy – Forested – Dudhwa NP

  • Bhangar – Old Alluvium – Has calcareous deposits – Kankar

  • Khadar – Newer Young Deposits – Fertile for intensive agriculture

Peninsular Plateau

  • Tableland – Igneous & metamorphic rocks – Black Soil - Cotton

  • By breaking of Gondwana & is oldest – broad, shallow with rounded hills

  • Central Highlands – North of Narmada (Malwa)

  • Deccan Plateau – South of Narmada

  • NE - Meghalaya and Karbi-Anglong Plateau, separated by fault with 3 hills GKJ (west to east - Garo, Khasi, Jaintia Hills)

  • Western Ghats – Continuous - Thal, Bhor and the Pal Ghats – Orographic Rain, Anai Mudi (2,695 m) and Doda Betta (2,637 m)

  • Eastern Ghats – Mahanadi to Nilgiri – irregular, Mahendragiri (1,501 m), Shevroy & Javadi Hills

Indian Desert

  • West of Aravallis

  • Sand dunes

  • Low Rainfall

  • Arid climate

  • Luni River

  • Brachans (Crescent shaped dunes) – Common

  • Longitudinal Dunes at Indo-Pak boundary

Coastal Plains

  • Western Coast – b/w Western Ghats & Arabian Sea –Narrow

  • Konkan (Mumbai-Goa), Kannad & Malabar

  • Eastern Coast – Wide & level

  • Northern Circar & Coromandal Coast

  • Deltas: Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri

  • Chilka Lake: Largest Salt Water Lake – Mahanadi, Orissa

Islands

  • Lakshadweep – Close to Malabar Coast Kerala – Coral (Barrier, fringing & atolls)

  • Also called Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindive

  • Kavaratti island is administrative headquarters

  • Pitli island - uninhabited, has a bird sanctuary

  • Andaman (N) & Nicobar (S) Islands – Bigger, Numerous

  • Barren Island – Active Volcano