Psychology Most Important Questions with Answers on GRE Psychology Diagnostic Pretest Part 24

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343. The “cathartic method” :

(A) Is associated with the use of ECT (electro-convulsive therapy) .

(B) Was development by Freud as a result of his treatment of Anna O, a woman diagnosed as a “hysteric?”

(C) Is a form of therapy, predominantly for the treatment of phobias, in which a patient is encouraged to vigorously confront objects or people him or she had previously feared.

(D) Is encouraged by Neo-Freudian therapists to overcome inhibitions.

(E) Is synonymous with “ablation,” the removal of brain sections.

Answer: B

344. Of the following, the pair that is incorrectly matched is:

(A) Rotter — Internal-External Scale.

(B) Witkin — Blacky Test.

(C) Kelly — REP Test.

(D) Rokeach — Dogmatism Scale.

(E) Rogers — Q-Sort.

Answer: B

345. A researcher beginning the study of a problem would most likely be using:

(A) Buros՚s MMY.

(B) NIMH Index.

(C) APA Publications Manual.

(D) Psychological Abstracts.

(E) Psychological Bulletin.

Answer: D

346. A controversial issue in forensic matters is whether a body of knowledge, say handwriting analysis, is sufficiently scientific to be admissible as evidence in court or whether the body of knowledge is a “pseudoscience.” The Court case most often cited to determine the scientific status of a body of testimony is:

(A) M ′ Naghten.

(B) Tarasoff.

(C) Durham.

(D) Daubert.

(E) Brown v. Board of Education.

Answer: D

347. An idiot savant would most likely not show extraordinary abilities in the area of:

(A) Linguistics.

(B) Memory.

(C) Numbers.

(D) Music.

(E) Speed of calculations.

Answer: A

348. Behaviors that cause satisfaction tend to be repeated while behaviors that annoyance tend not be repeated. This is known as the:

(A) Law of reinforcement.

(B) Law of contiguity.

(C) Law of exercise.

(D) Law of effect.

(E) Law of action.

Answer: D

349. The theorist most associated with the concept of drive reduction is:

(A) Hebb.

(B) Skinner.

(C) Olds.

(D) Hull.

(E) Spence.

Answer: D

350. A person applying for disability benefits claims to have numerous obscure symptoms. The interviewing psychologist, suspicious of the applicant՚s truthfulness, suggests some additional, fanciful symptoms and inquires whether the interviewee has these symptoms also. The psychologist is likely testing for:

(A) Memory impairment.

(B) Malingering.

(C) Brain injury.

(D) Hypochondria.

(E) Neurolepsia.

Answer: B

351. The serial position effect in learning a list of words predicts that:

(A) Words occurring as the beginning of the list are remembered better than words occurring at the end of the list.

(B) There is a monotonic decreasing effect of word position on memory.

(C) Words in the middle of the list are not remembered as well as words occurring at the beginning of the list.

(D) The last words heard will most likely be the first words reported.

(E) There is a monotonic increasing effect of word position on memory.

Answer: C

352. An infant՚s attention to a novel stimulus decreases over time. The best explanation for this is:

(A) Habituation.

(B) Maturation.

(C) Inhibition.

(D) Reminiscence.

(E) Delayed response.

Answer: A

353. The perception of coetaneous pressure often decreases over time even when the pressure remains constant. The best explanation for this is:

(A) Inhibition.

(B) Interaction effects.

(C) All-or-none effect.

(D) Adaptation.

(E) Interference.

Answer: D

354. Based on information obtained from crisis hotlines, walk-in clinics, and suicide prevention centers, studies have found that:

(A) Suicide rates are highest for unemployed individuals who have had a history of hospitalization.

(B) The greatest danger of suicide occurs at the point of deepest depression.

(C) More females than males attempts suicide while more males than females actually commit suicide.

(D) Threatening suicide is not typically an indication that someone will actually commit suicide.

(E) Suicide among minority groups is higher than suicide among non-minority groups.

Answer: C

355. For a behavior to be considered instinctual, it must be shown that:

(A) It occurs in all normal individuals of the species.

(B) It cannot be altered by environmental input.

(C) It is achieved by everyone at the same time.

(D) It is apparent at birth.

(E) It is not related to learning.

Answer: A

356. According to accepted practice, a job selection test should have high:

(A) Predictive validity.

(B) Face validity.

(C) Congruent validity.

(D) Content validity.

(E) Construct validity.

Answer: A

357. A phobia could be considered the behavioral manifestation of the defense mechanism of:

(A) Reaction formation.

(B) Isolation.

(C) Displacement.

(D) Denial.

(E) Introjection.

Answer: C

358. According to anthropologists like Malinowski and Benedict, what is considered “abnormal” in one society may be considered “normal” in another. This finding has led some psychologists to the belief in:

(A) Recial diversity.

(B) Genetic markers.

(C) Eclecticism.

(D) Cultural relativism.

(E) Field theory.

Answer: D

359. The point-biserial correlation is used to relate:

(A) Continuous variable with a dichotomous variable.

(B) Two continuous variable.

(C) Two dichotomous variable.

(D) Three dichotomous variable.

(E) One continuous and two dichotomous variables.

Answer: A

360. The scale used for numbering uniforms of football players is:

(A) Ratio.

(B) Nominal.

(C) Categorical.

(D) Interval.

(E) Ordinal.

Answer: B

361. After REM deprivation, the phenomenon most likely to occur would be:

(A) Lack of REM during subsequent sleep periods.

(B) Mightmares during subsequent sleep periods.

(C) REM rebound during subsequent sleep periods.

(D) Decreased hypnogogic imagery during subsequent sleep periods.

(E) Increased hypnopompic imagery during subsequent sleep periods.

Answer: C