Psychology Most Important Questions with Answers on GRE Psychology Diagnostic Pretest Part 4

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59. In a cumulative learning curve, an asymptote indicates:

(A) The end of the trial.

(B) A marked increase in response.

(C) Steady, systematic improvement.

(D) Extinction.

(E) No response.

Answer: E

60. As compared with fixed schedules of reinforcement, variable schedules:

(A) Produce less learning.

(B) Produce more generalizable learning

(C) Are best for avoidance learning.

(D) Produce learning which is less extinguishable.

(E) Do none of the above.

Answer: D

61. When a mother feeds her baby she talks to it. Her talking is best described as a:

(A) Primary reinforcer.

(B) Positive reinforcer.

(C) Continuous reinforcer.

(D) Generalized reinforcer.

(E) Secondary reinforcer.

Answer: E

62. In the classical conditioning paradigm, backward conditioning has been found to be:

(A) Ineffective.

(B) Moderately effective.

(C) More effective than simultaneous conditioning.

(D) More effective than delayed conditioning.

(E) Effective, although easily extinguished.

Answer: A

63. The model in which the animal’s response elicits the reward is called:

(A) Classical conditioning.

(B) Shaping.

(C) First-order conditioning.

(D) Second-order conditioning.

(E) Operant conditioning.

Answer: E

64. In conditioning, partial or intermittent reinforcement:

(A) Accelerates extinction.

(B) Retards extinction.

(C) Retards conditioning.

(D) Accelerates generalization.

(E) Produces none of the above effects.

Answer: B

65. A rat that learned to climb a stairway, run across a plank, climb a ladder, throw a switch, open a gate, and then press a bar is exhibiting:

(A) Sign learning.

(B) Discrimination learning.

(C) Contiguity learning.

(D) Shaping.

(E) None of the above.

Answer: E

66. According to Miller and Dollard, the avoidance gradient is:

(A) Less steep than the approach gradient closer to the goal.

(B) Steeper than the approach gradient closer to the goal.

(C) Asymptotic where it crosses the approach gradient.

(D) Generally steeper further from the goal.

(E) Variable depending on the kind of goal.

Answer: B

67. In the Miller and Dollard learning model, the usual response in an avoidance-avoidance conflict is:

(A) A very slow approach to the goal.

(B) Initial vacillation, then withdrawal.

(C) Experimental neurosis.

(D) A period of apparent conflict, followed by approach to the goal.

(E) A period of apparent conflict, followed by aggression toward the goal.

Answer: B

68. Electrical stimulation of certain areas of the hypothalamus of rats produced fantastically high bar-pressing response. The researcher associated with this investigation is:

(A) Hebb.

(B) Lashley.

(C) Penfield.

(D) Olds.

(E) Sherrington.

Answer: D

69. In the information-processing model of human learning the term which is synonymous with “long-term memory” is:

(A) Sensory register.

(B) Retrieval pool.

(C) Response generator.

(D) Working memory.

(E) Knowledge base.

Answer: E

70. Which of the following statement about the incidence of male homosexually is not true?

(A) Homosexuality occurs more frequently among unmarried than among married men.

(B) Homosexuality occurs more frequently among African Americans than among whites.

(C) Homosexuality occurs in the same proportion of males as of females.

(D) Homosexuality occurs more frequently among religiously unaffiliated men than among men affiliated with a religion.

(E) Homosexuality occurs more frequently among men in low-status occupations than among those in high status occupations.

Answer: C

71. Superstitious behavior can be defined as:

(A) Behavior based on beliefs that are accepted without proof.

(B) Behavior based on secondary reinforcers, not primary reinforcers.

(C) Behavior based on schedules of reinforcement no longer in effect.

(D) Learned behaviors that seem to have no purpose.

(E) Behaviors that have been previously reinforced merely by chance.

Answer: E

72. A light goes on before a noxious stimulus begins. If the animal emits a behavior after the light goes on, there will be no aversive stimulus. This is called:

(A) Escape conditioning.

(B) Avoidance conditioning.

(C) Inhibition conditioning.

(D) Negative conditioning.

(E) Backward conditioning.

Answer: B

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