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Q. How far do you agree that the behavior of the Indian monsoon has been changing due to humanizing landscape? Discuss?

  • Humanizing Landscape: Humanizing the landscape can be defined as changing the natural landscape architecture as per requirement of human beings like Urbanization or Industrialization.

  • Due to humanizing landscapes the natural balance has been disturbed. Resulted in excessive deforestation, increase in pollution and pollutants, rise of built-up area, global warming, etc.

  • All these make disturbances in hydrological cycle of atmosphere either reducing or increasing the rate of evaporation and ultimately cause to change the pattern of Indian Monsoon

  • The monsoon has traditionally been sensitive to below-average temperatures in the tropical Pacific Ocean, known as La Nina. Such a cooling in the Pacific would usually produce copious rain over India and the monsoon would often end on the excess side.

  • However, despite a La Nina that persists in a year the monsoons were only close to average. On the other hand, even a moderate El Nino is greatly retarding the monsoon.

  • Monsoon has cycles of high and low rainfall. Owing to this Low rainfall is getting extended than earlier. It can be observed that there has been a downward trend in all-India monsoon rainfall since the late-1990s.

  • It leads to steady and rapid warming of the Indian Ocean and results in reducing the land-ocean contrast which is the basic principle of monsoonal wind movement.

Humanizing factors affecting monsoon:

  • Increase in the number of condensation nuclei due to increased availability of pollutants and dust particles has led to the urban regions receiving increased rainfall than the rural regions

  • Increased built up area has allowed increased heating of the surface. This increased temperature has caused more evaporation and affected rain patterns

  • Deforestation has had an adverse impact on monsoon distribution.

  • Increased concretization leads to increased run off and less water percolation thereby affecting water cycle and disrupting monsoon cycle.

  • The pressure differences which are vital for monsoonal precipitation have been unbalanced and unpredictable

  • High rise buildings have caused variations in local wind patterns and altered precipitation.

  • Global warming, rise in sea level temperature etc. have made the monsoon erratic and unpredictable. They cause draughts in one region and floods in another. Such extreme whether events have been on the rise primarily due to anthropogenic activities including humanizing landscapes.

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