MOOC Courses: New Paper 1 Syllabus 2021

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Technology Enhanced Learning

Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) The term TEL is used to describe the application of information and communication technologies to teaching and learning.

TEL is “any online facility or system that directly supports learning and teaching and may include a formal virtual learning environment (VLE) , an institutional intranet that has learning and teaching component, a system that has been developed in house or a particular suite of specific individual tools”

It is inclusive of open coursewares (OCWs) , OERs, MOOCs, e-journals, e-books, digitized libraries, online social networking spaces, blogs, e-learning, wikis, webinars, podcasts, YouTube and various educational audio/video contents on web in the public domain.

A report on international trends in HE (2015) by University of Oxford reported that ICT has become a key driver of both economic competitiveness and social development and MOOCs have become one of the most high profile aspects of the use of technology in teaching in recent years, with 142 universities providing free courses open to all participants via Coursera and edX alone.

OERs (Open Educational Resources)

These range from textbooks to legally and freely copy, use, adapt and re-share them) . OERs range from textbooks to curricula, syllabi, lecture notes, assignments, tests, projects, audio, video and animation

Several OER initiatives that deserve mention apart from the widely known MIT Open Courseware are Connexion, Open Learn, Japan Open Courseware Consortium, China Open Resources for Education, NPTEL, the Indian Government՚s OER and the Vietnam Foundation

India՚s National Knowledge Commission (NKC) was set up as an advisory body to GOI for restructuring educational institutions to meet the challenges of 21st century. Information and Library Network Centre was set up for sharing digital content of library information resources collaboratively among academic Institutions

Open Source Courseware Animations Repository

The National Science Digital Library, the National Program on Technology Enhanced Learning (NPTEL) and FlexiLearn by Indira Gandhi National Open University՚s is undertaken by India.

The National Mission on Education through ICT (NMEICT) was constituted in 2009 by Government of India (GOI) , with aim to enhance accessibility of educational content and to increase enrolment rate in higher education through improved ICT facility.

The Indian OER initiative, NPTEL, a collaborative initiative of the seven Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) and the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore with financial support from GOI was launched in 2003 with its objectives of creating curriculum material in higher education in engineering and science. It provides access to recorded video lectures of different engineering and science disciplines which are hosted on YouTube, Met café, ‘Sakshat’ and on NPTEL portal

  • Free Online Courses to Enroll
  • Affordable
  • Flexible
  • Quality Education
  • Anyone can participate
  • Unlimited participation and open access via the web

In addition to traditional course materials, such as filmed lectures, readings, and problem sets, many MOOCs provide interactive courses with user forums to support community interactions among students, professors, and teaching assistants

In addition, MOOCs is a better way to offer corporate skill development opportunities to the working professionals because of its highly flexible and relevance attribute making these learner segment more effective and knowledgeable at their workplaces.

Innovation Tying Technology

′ Massive Open Online Courses ′ or MOOCs are web-based online courses conducted by professors or experts which can simultaneously include an unlimited count of participants ′

′ MOOCs is an online learning course offering open registration at no extra cost, a publicly shared course syllabus, and defined learning outcomes.

MOOCs is a rich source of consumable digital content and enable experiential learning through social collaboration which attracts working professionals who are on a lookout to sharpen their skills and knowledge for a variety of motivational factors like career growth, create thought leadership in their domain, financial benefits at work, improving social reputation through meaningful discussions or even learning for fun

  • “Massive” means a few hundred thousand students can join it simultaneously. “Open” means it is openly accessible to anybody, anywhere, anytime 27x7x365 with the free use and reuse (with legitimate restrictions) of the source material. “Online” indicates that it is offered through the web. “Course” stands for a self-paced class, usually of 4 - 8 weeks, with students joining across the continents and interacting virtually and certificates or “statement of accomplishment” is awarded to the successful students after evaluation of exams online assignments either by auto grader or peer group.
  • 1st MOOCs emerged from the open educational resources (OER) movement, which was sparked by MIT OpenCourseWare project
  • Term “MOOC” was coined in 2008 by Canadian academician named David Cormier –
  • First MOOC was taught by George Siemens and Stephen Downes in University of Manitoba, Canada where a class of 25 regular students was extended online to teach 1500 students. Course Connectivism and Connective Knowledge
  • Stephen Downes considers these so-called cMOOCs to be more ″ creative and dynamic ″ than the current xMOOCs, which he believes ″ resemble television shows or digital textbooks.
  • ALISON is a free online education platform that mostly focuses on workplace-based skills.
  • Udemy. com is an online learning platform. It is aimed at professional adults. Unlike academic massive open online course (MOOC) programs which are driven by traditional collegiate coursework, Udemy uses content from online content creators to sell for profit.
  • Peer 2 Peer University (P2PU) is a nonprofit online open learning community which allows users to organize and participate in courses and study groups to learn about specific topics.
  • According to The New York Times, 2012 became “the year of the MOOC” as several well-financed providers, associated with top universities, emerged, including Coursera, Udacity, and edX
  • First MOOC came in 2008 from the University of Manitoba and the term MOOC was coined by Dave Cornier. MOOC got popularity in the year 2012 as the online education tools got more popularity during the period

‘MOOCs National Committees (MNC) ’ Constituted by the MHRD

  • Mission Director, NMEICT, chair the MNC
  • The National Coordinator ensures that the best teacher in the Country is selected to work as the ‘Principal Investigator’ or ‘Subject Matter Expert (SME) ’ .
  • Defining the Course design, pre-requisites and expected outcomes
  • Splitting the course into weeks and short modules
  • Preparing quizzes for each lecture for self-testing
  • Weekly assessments and assignments
  • Discussion forums to answer questions online.
  • Practice offering of MOOC for training and course delivery.
  • One credit will be equivalent to 13 - 15 hours learning covering going through the course content, participating in discussion forums
  • 4 - 10 weeks for shorter courses for 2 to 3 credits at certificate level or for teacher training programme.
  • 12 - 16 weeks for CBCS programmes with faculty/mentor support from participating institutions/affiliations of 4-to 6 credits at diploma, UG and PG level.

Types of MOOC

  • Connectivist MOOCs (cMOOCs)
  • Cognitive-behavioural MOOCs (xMOOCs)
  • Connectivist MOOCs (cMOOCs) – programs designed on what is popularly referred as connectivist (Siemens, 2013) . It emphasizes connecting learners as a learner-driven discovery of topics than just the expertise of participants or facilitators. It offers more network based and collaborative learning approach. It is referred as learning pedagogy for the millennial era.
  • Cognitive-behavioural MOOCs (xMOOCs) – it evolves on the concept of open courseware and educational resources & assets. xMOOCs are common in delivering a custom-tailored learning environment with broad and unrestricted access to knowledge and related information on the topic. xMOOCs resemble traditional courses which are translated and uploaded as online content offering scale to accommodate massive audience.

MOOCs in India

  • SWAYAM, NPTEL-NASSCOM collaboration
  • Innovation Pedagogy Report 2014: MOOCs, badges to accredit learning, learning analytics, seamless learning, crow learning, digital scholarship, geolearning, learning from gaming, maker culture and citizen inquiry
  • MOOCs providers like Udacity, now working closely with tech giant likes Google, Facebook, IBM and more to accommodate learning requirements of new-age IT professionals in sunrise domains like machine learning, big data, analytics and many more
  • The “Innovation Pedagogy Report 2014” by Open University describes ten pedagogies which might transform education. These are – MOOCs, badges to accredit learning, learning analytics, seamless learning, crow learning, digital scholarship, geolearning, learning from gaming, maker culture and citizen inquiry.
  • UNESCO՚s initiative on mobiMOOC (mobile MOOC) was quite popular which aimed at “using a mobile MOOC to increase educational quality for a diversity of learners through dialogue and ubiquity” and development of open educational resources.


  • Twenty two of the top 25 US universities in US News World Report rankings are now offering courses online for free
  • “Edraak” , a Arabic language MOOC for Arab world. EdX is a non-profit venture created by founding partners Harvard and MIT.

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