NTA NET JRF 2017 − 18 Expected Topics & Questions YouTube Lecture Handout

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NTA NET JRF 2017-18 Expected Topics & Questions

Environment & Geography

  • Ken- Betwa Interlinking
  • Water to Bundelkhand (drought prone)
  • Benefit Jhansi, Banda and Mahoba (Uttar Pradesh) and Chhatarpur, Panna and Tikamgarh (Madhya Pradesh)
  • Clearance by National Board for Wildlife (NBWL) – Diversion from Panna Tiger Reserve

Environment Tax in China

  • 350 yuan ($ 60) to 11,200 yuan ($ 1870) per month for noise.
  • 1.4 yuan on water pollutants
  • 1.2 yuan on stipulated quantities of air pollutants
  • 5 to 1,000 yuan for each ton of solid waste.
  • China: World՚s largest emitter of GHGs due to its heavy reliance on coal to provide electricity to its population of 1.37 billion (world՚s largest)


  • 1st generation ethanol: Made from the sugars & vegetable oils found in arable crops, which can be easily extracted using conventional technology.
  • 2nd generation ethanol: Made from lignocellulosic biomass or woody crops, agricultural residues or waste, which makes it harder to extract fuel using conventional technology.
  • India՚s first 2nd generation ethanol plant at Tarkhanwala village in Bathinda, Punjab by Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL)

National Green Tribunal (NGT)

  • Statutory body established by a Government Notification using the powers of Section 3 of the NGT Act 2010.
  • Special fast-track court to handle the expeditious disposal of the cases pertaining to environmental issues.
  • Established to assure the right to a healthy environment to the citizens of India as enshrined in Article 21 of Constitution.
  • Ban on burning of waste in open places
  • Fine: ₹ 25,000
  • Cancel allotment of salt pan in Sambhar Lake with “No Construction Zone” – Ramsar Wetland Site


  • TanSat will examine global CO2 levels every 16 days, accurate to at least 4 ppm (parts per million) .
  • China third after Japan and USA to have satellite to monitor CO2 levels.

Majuli Island, Assam

  • ‘Sustainable Action for Climate Resilient Development in Majuli’ (SACReD, Majuli)
  • Aim to make Majuli country՚s first ever Carbon Neutral district by 2020


  • 7 - 20 km ASL
  • Most weather phenomena occur here
  • Ammonia detected in upper troposphere
  • By Karlsruhe Institute of Technology in Germany
  • Ammonia (NH3) : Released into atmosphere as agricultural emission from livestock farming and fertilization.
  • Highest concentrations above Asian monsoon regions of N. India and SE China

Kigali Meeting

  • Aimed to include HFCs in list of chemicals under Montreal Protocol.
  • India had negotiated baseline years (2024 to 2030) and freeze year in subsequent years for phasing down the use of HFCs.
  • It had two set of baselines years agreed for developing countries.
  • India along with nine other countries will have baseline years of 2024,2025, 2026.
  • India will phase down of HFCs in 4 steps from 2032 onwards with cumulative reduction of 10 % in 2032,20 % in 2037,30 % in 2042 and 85 % in 2047
  • Largest HFC producer: China, followed by S. Africa & Brazil
  • Incentivize improvement in energy efficiency in case of use of new refrigerant and technology

IUCN Red List

  • Extinct (EX) – No known individuals remaining
  • Extinct in the wild (EW) – Known only to survive in captivity, or as a naturalized population outside its historic range
  • Critically endangered (CR) – Extremely high risk of extinction in the wild
  • Endangered (EN) – High risk of extinction in the wild
  • Vulnerable (VU) – High risk of endangerment in the wild
  • Near threatened (NT) – Likely to become endangered in the near future
  • Least concern (LC) – Lowest risk; does not qualify for a higher risk category. Widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category.
  • Data deficient (DD) – Not enough data to make an assessment of its risk of extinction
  • Not evaluated (NE) – Has not yet been evaluated against the criteria.

India՚s Nationally Determined Contribution

  • India՚s Intended Nationally Determined includes reduction in the productions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35 % by 2030 from 2005.
  • For the create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tons of equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by 2030.
  • Target 175 GW renewable energy by 2022
  • INDC is balanced and comprehensive. INDC purposes:
    • Sustainable lifestyle
    • Enhancing carbon sink (Forests)
    • Reduce emission intensity of GDP
    • Economic development
    • Increase share of non-fossil fuel based electricity

Environmental Issues

  • Kasturiranjan Committee
  • Gadgil Committee
  • Interlinking of Rivers
  • COP22 to the UNFCC: Marrakech Action Proclamation for Our Climate and Sustainable Development.
  • Doha Amendments to Kyoto Protocol

Geographically Important Topics

Important Videos

Will be Covered

  • Energy Independence by 2030
  • Renewable Energy Scenario in India

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