National Action Plan on Climate Change New Paper 1 Syllabus for 2021

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Need for Action Plan?

  • How it Happened?
  • Over 487 million people without access to electricity (2005)
  • 80.4 % of the population is below the $ 2 per day poverty level, and 34.3 % below the $ 1 per day level (1990 - 2005) .
  • India needs GDP growth of 8 %+ over the next 25 years to lift the bottom 40 % of her citizens to an acceptable level of economic & social well being. This is not possible without increased energy use
  • India is historically vulnerable to climate variability: floods, droughts, vector borne disease, cyclones, ocean storm surges
  • According to the Global Climate Risk Index of 2018, published by German Watch, a non-profit working on North-South equity and preservation of livelihoods, India is the 12th most vulnerable country to climate change impacts. Every year, it witnesses an average of 3,570 deaths attributable to climate-related events
  • In 2007, China released its national plan to address climate change issues, leaving India as the only big developing country without such an instrument. As a result, the government wanted a policy instrument before the G8 Summit at Tokyo in 2008 and the Conference of Parties at Copenhagen in 2009.

Integrated Energy Policy, 2006

Energy efficiency in all sectors

  • Emphasis on mass transport
  • Emphasis on renewables including biofuels and fuel plantations
  • Accelerated development of nuclear and hydropower Technology Missions for Clean Energy
  • Focused R&D on several climate change related technologies

Other Schemes

  • International Solar Alliances (ISA)
  • State Action Plan on Climate Change (SAPCC)
  • FAME Scheme – for E-mobility
  • Atal Mission for Rejuvenation & Urban Transformation (AMRUT) – for Smart Cities
  • Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana – for access to clean cooking fuel
  • UJALA scheme - for embracing energy efficient LED bulbs
  • Swachh Bharat Mission
  • Rural Electrification Policy 2006
  • Energy Conservation Act, 2001
  • New and Renewables Energy Policy, 2005
  • Biodiesel Purchase Policy
  • Ethanol Blending of Gasoline
  • Energy Conservation Building Code, 2006
  • Bachat Lamp Yojana
  • 50,000 MW Hydroelectric Initiative, 2003

Reforming Energy Markets (Electricity Act 2005, Tariff Policy 2003, Petroleum & Natural Gas Regulatory Board Act, 2006, Etc.)

  • Remove entry barriers and raise competition in exploration, extraction, conversion, transmission & distribution of primary and secondary energy
  • Institute price reform. Full competition at point of sale. Net back pricing for non-traded energy if domestic market not competitive
  • Tax reform to promote optimal fuel choices.
  • Augment and diversify energy options, sources and energy infrastructure: Feed-in tariffs for renewables (solar, wind, biomass cogen)
  • Strengthen or introduce independent regulation

Principle of NAPCC

  • Protecting the poor through an inclusive and sustainable development strategy, sensitive to climate change
  • Achieving national growth and poverty alleviation objectives while ensuring ecological sustainability
  • Efficient and cost-effective strategies for end-use Demand side management
  • Extensive and accelerated deployment of appropriate technologies for adaptation and mitigation
  • New and innovative market, regulatory, and voluntary mechanisms for sustainable development
  • Effective implementation through unique linkages – with civil society, LGUs, and public-private partnerships
  • National Solar Mission
  • National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency
  • National Mission on Sustainable Habitat
  • National Water Mission
  • National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem
  • National Mission for a Green India
  • National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture
  • National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change (NMSKCC)

National Mission for Sustainable Habitat

  • The plan seeks to promote energy efficiency as an essential component of urban planning. It calls for extending the Energy Conservation Building Code, and emphasises urban waste management and recycling, including power production from waste. Commenced in 2010 -Being implemented under Smart Cities, AMRUT, Swachh Bharat Mission and urban transport programmes. Urban areas are the fountainheads of emissions that cause climate change. Cities consume over two-thirds of the world՚s energy and account for over 70 per cent of the global CO2 emissions, says a 2011 estimate of the World Bank. The average per capita CO2e emissions from Delhi, Greater Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Greater Benga luru, Ahmedabad and Hyderabad is 2.7 ton while India՚s national average is 1.5 ton
  • National Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE) . The plan estimates that current initiatives, based on the Energy Conservation Act of 2001, will yield 10 000 MW of savings by 2012. Energy saving of 8.67 million tonnes of oil equivalent (30 % above target) achieved in the first phase commenced in 2010. Perform, Achieve and Trade (PAT) is the most important initiative under the mission.
  • NATIONAL WATER MISSION (NWM) WHY: To ensure water security and improve access to the resource COMMENCEMENT: 2011 PROPOSED BUDGET: ₹ 20,000 crore TARGET: Improve water efficiency by 20 %
  • under NMSKCC, six Global Technology Watch Groups have been created to six environmentally sensitive economic sectors — agriculture, water, sustainable habitat, manufacturing, energy efficiency and forestry — to keep track of latest developments
  • NATIONAL SOLAR MISSION (NSM) WHY: To hike renewable energy capacity COMMENCEMENT: 2010 BUDGET: ₹ 9,187 crore till 2016 - 17 TARGET: 100 GW by 2022 - India՚s push for solar energy began in 2010 when the government announced the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) under NAPCC.
  • NATIONAL MISSION FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE (NMSA) : WHY: To climate-proof agriculture and reduce emissions from the sector COMMENCEMENT: 2012. There are four components in NMSA: Soil Health Management (SHM) ; Rainfed Area Development (RAD) ; Sub-Mission on Agro-Forestry (SMAF) to promote plantation along with crops; and Climate Change and Sustainable Agriculture: Monitoring, Modeling and Networking (CCSAMMN) for creating models on adaptation and dissemination of information on climate change adaptation and mitigation.
  • GREEN INDIA MISSION (GIM) WHY: To increase forest and tree cover COMMENCEMENT: 2014 BUDGET: ₹ 46,000 crore STATUS: 30 - 40 % short in plantations undertaken
  • National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem: A multi-pronged, cross-cutting mission across various sectors, NMSHE got a nod from the Union Cabinet in 2014.

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