Unit X Higher Education Crash Course – Quick Revision (Terms & Concepts) Based on New Paper 1 Syllabus for 2021

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  • Unit-X Higher Education System Institutions of higher learning and education in ancient India. Evolution of higher learning and research in Post-Independence India. Oriental, Conventional and Non-conventional learning programs in India. Professional, Technical and Skill Based education. Value education and environmental education. Policies, Governance, and Administration.

Higher Education

Gurukul System

Ancient Universities

Education under British Rule

  • Since English was increasingly being employed as the language of instruction, during 1852 – 1853 petitions were sent to the British Parliament in support of both establishing and adequately funding university education in India which resulted in the Education Dispatch of July 1854 which helped in shaping the education system of India.
  • Education of Indians had become a topic of interest among East India Company officials. The policy՚s goal was
    • to advance knowledge of Indians and
    • to employ that knowledge in the East India Company
  • Established a Department of Public Instruction in each province of British India.
  • Established teacher-training schools for all levels of instruction.
  • Increased the number of Government colleges, vernacular schools and high-schools.
  • Department of Public Instruction was in place by 1855. By 1857 a number of universities were established modeled on the University of London.
  • Wood՚s Dispatch
  • Hunter Commission or Education Commission, 1882
  • Universities Commission, 1902
  • Government Resolution on Educational Policy, 1913
  • Sadler Commission or Calcutta University Commission, 1917
  • Hartog Committee, 1929
  • Sapru, Murlidhar, NEP – 2019 (1968,1986 …)
  • Policies in India
  • Inclusive Education
  • CBSE
  • ICSE
  • Reforms UGC HEERA
  • Rastriya Uchhtar Shiksha Abhiyaan
  • Degree Institutes
  • Central Universities
  • Institute of National Importance
  • Challenges
  • Research in Education
  • Adult Education
  • Polity
  • Constitution
  • Pitt՚s Act, Charter Act
  • Amendments
  • Fundamental Rights
  • Fundamental Duties
  • DPSP
  • Writs
  • The Company Rule (1773 - 1858)
    • Regulating Act of 1773
    • Pitt՚s India Act of 1784
    • Charter Act of 1833
  • The Crown Rule (1858 - 1947)
    • Government of India Act (Transfer of power to British Government)
    • Indian Council Acts of 1861,1892 and 1909
    • Government of India Act 1935
  • Company Rule vs. Crown Rule
    • Citizenship
    • Loss of Citizenship
    • Good Governance
    • President
    • Vice-President
    • Lok Sabha
    • Rajya Sabha
    • Election - Reforms
    • Parliament
    • Council of Ministers
    • Speaker
    • Bill
    • Ordinance
    • Question Hour
    • Motion - Types
    • Termination of Session
    • Prorogation
    • Adjournment
    • Dissolution
    • Committees – estimate, public account
    • Supreme Court
    • High Court
    • Chief Justice
    • State Legislature
    • Panchayat Samiti
    • Municipality
    • Election Commission
    • Attorney General
    • Comptroller and Auditor General
    • All India Services
    • Jan Lokpal Bill

Meaning of Orient

  • Word Orient is a historical term for the East, traditionally comprising anything that belongs to the Eastern world in relation to Europe.
  • In English, it is largely a metonym for the continent of Asia, loosely classified into the Near East, Middle East, and Far East.
    • Near East: It mainly means South-West Asia. The term has fallen into disuse in English and has been replaced by the terms Middle East and West Asia, the former of which may include Egypt, and the latter strictly Southwest Asia, including the Transcaucasus.
    • Middle East: The Middle East is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European) , and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa)
    • Far East: The Far East is a geographical term in English that usually refers to East Asia (including Northeast Asia) , the Russian Far East (part of North Asia) , and Southeast Asia.

Oriental Studies

Indology- Bengal, Dravidian, Sindhology

Oriental Studies

Indology- Bengal, Dravidian, Sindhology


  • This is related to the conventional studies of the Indian health and medicinal systems, or the systems which are widely practiced in India even though they maybe of foreign origin. Ministry of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homoeopathy, abbreviated as AYUSH, is a governmental body purposed with developing education and research in the field of alternative medicines.
    • Institute of Post Graduate Teaching & Research in Ayurveda, Jamnagar (Gujarat) ,
    • National Institute of Ayurveda (NIA) Jaipur
    • Rashtriya Ayurved Vidyapeeth, New Delhi.

Oriental Research Institutes of India

  • Archaeological Survey of India (ASI)
  • Centre for Cultural Resources & Training (CCRT)
  • National School of Drama
  • Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC)
  • National Film Development Corporation Limited (NFDC)
  • Sahitya Academy
  • Sangeet Natak Academy
  • Lalit Kala Academy
  • Adyar Library and Research Center, Chennai
  • Asiatic Society
  • Oriental Research Institutes are devoted to Indological studies.

Development of Education in Ancient India

  • Medium of Instruction, Role of Teacher
  • Brahmagupta, Bhaskaracharya, Pingala, Sushtru, Charak
  • Ancient Universities – Takshila, Nalanda
  • Medieval education – Developments – Madarssa, Makhtab
  • Karkhana – Akbar

Science and Technology in Modern India

Moon, Mars & Space Mission

Ayushmaan Bharat

Ramanujan, Raman, Bose, Sarabhai

  • Conventional Programs
  • Types of Universities
  • Open university, distance learning
  • Non-Conventional Programs
  • Dale՚s Research of Effectiveness of Educational Methods
  • Alternative Schooling
  • Tagor, Gandhi. Badheka, Krishnamurti, Aurbindo
  • Value Education – Definition, Purpose, Relation
  • Whole School Approach
  • Environmental Education
  • ESD (Sustainable Dvt)
  • Schemes and Scientific Programs
  • Across Curriculum
  • Role of Media
  • Awareness

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