Unit VIII ICT Crash Course – Quick Revision (Terms & Concepts) Based on New Paper 1 Syllabus for 2020

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Syllabus

  • Unit-VIII Information and Communication Technology (ICT) ICT: General abbreviations and terminology. Basics of Internet, Intranet, E-mail, Audio and Video-conferencing. Digital initiatives in higher education. ICT and Governance

  • What is computer?

  • Components

  • Hardware

  • Software

  • Input-Output

  • Motherboard – Components

  • Firmware

  • System Software

  • Application Software

  • System software - controls the overall operation of the system

  • Data Storage

  • Volatile and Non-Volatile Memory

  • Accessibility

  • Mutability

  • Addressability

  • Formatting – OS

  • Primary Computer Data Storage: Directly accessed by the processor.

  • Secondary Computer Data Storage: Storage is accessed is via the input or output type of channels.

    • Hard Disk Drive

    • Solid State Drive

    • Floppy Disk Drive

  • Tertiary Computer Data Storage: These involve use of specific mechanisms to insert & dismount certain removable storage medias into specific storage devices as per requirement

    • Tape Library

    • Optical Library: Also called robotic drives, or auto-changers. Jukebox devices can have 2,000 slots for disks, & typically has picking device to traverses slots & drives.

  • Non-Volatile Memory: These retain stored information even after power is removed & is suitable for long-term storage of information.

  • Volatile Memory: Constant power is required to maintain the stored information & fastest memory technologies like RAM are volatile.

  • Processing – Serial and Batch

  • Microprocessor

  • Components of Microprocessor

  • Warm Boot

  • Cold Boot

  • Stage of Computer – Booting, Crash, Hibernation, Standby, Wakeup

  • It is often used in contrast to a warm boot, which refers to restarting a computer once it has been turned on. A cold boot is typically performed by pressing the power button on the computer.

  • Binary – Decimal

  • Data – Bit, Byte, KiB, MB, GB

  • CPU runs the BIOS (Basic Input / Output System)

  • POST (Power On Self-Test)

  • RAM & ROM

  • ROM (Read-only memory) - Flash memory

    BIOS (Basic Input Output System) - to start the system (before the operating system)

  • Primary memory is generally RAM (Random Access Memory)

    fast data access, Volatile power goes, data go, expensive

  • Network

  • Internet – www; telnet

  • Moore’s law

  • Malicious programs

  • Infectious malware

  • Concealed program

  • Annoying program

  • Computer classification – size, PC type, handheld PCs

  • LAN

  • WAN

  • Network Interface Card

  • Media Access Control Addresses

  • Firewall

  • Protocol

  • IP Address

  • MIME: It stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension

  • Artificial intelligence

  • Virtual reality

  • Smart devices (even w/o internet)

  • Augmented reality

  • IoT

  • Wearable computing

  • Mixed Reality

  • Cybernetics

  • Augmented reality is used to enhance natural environments or situations and offer perceptually enriched experiences.

  • Mixed reality (MR) not just overlays but anchors virtual objects to the real world.

  • Word cybernetics is derived from Greek word, which means “science of steering of ships”.

  • Ampere, 1st used this word to define it as the science of societal control.

  • Weiner used it as science of communication and control.

  • MIS

  • Jay Galbraith Classification

  • Education – TV Media

  • History of Computing

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