Method of Research for Paper 1 Unit II (Research Aptitude) as Per New 2021 Syllabus

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Generally, under social and economic research importance is given to the following methods.

  • Historical Method:
    • Any research which makes use of observations based on past events is known as research in historical approach.
    • The main aim of historical research is to apply the method of reflective thinking to social and economic problems still unsolved by means of discovery of past trends of events, facts & attitudes.
    • It traces lines to development in human thought & action in order to reach some basis for social activity.
  • The Case Study Method:
    • A case study is deep and intensive study of a particular social unit, confined to a very small number of cases.
    • Thus the field of study in case study method is limited but it aims at studying all aspects of a social unit.
    • It also seeks to determine social process, it reveals the complexity of factors and indicate their sequences & their relationships.
    • It is also a diagnostic study oriented towards finding out what is happening and why is it happening & what can be done about it Case study says Charles H. Colley, “depends on our perception and gives us a clearer insight into life.”
    • Advantages:
      • It produces new ideas and fresh suggestions.
      • It helps in formulating a sound hypothesis, & It may also help in exploring new areas of research.

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  • Survey Method:
    • The term survey is used for the technique of investigation by a direct observation of a phenomena or systematic gathering of data from population by applying personal contact & interviews when an adequate information about a certain problem is not available in records, files and other sources.
      • Types of surveys:
        • General or specific surveys:
        • A general survey is conducted for collecting general information of any population, institution or phenomena without any hypothesis.
  • Regular and Adcock Surveys:
    • If the survey is repeated for regular intervals to obtain continuous information, it is known as regular survey. It helps in the study trend of the effect of time on the phenomena under the study.
    • For regular surveys a permanent machinery for collecting information has to be set up.
  • Preliminary and Final Surveys:
    • Preliminary survey is the plot study to get the firsthand knowledge of the universe under study. It helps the researcher in preparing schedule or questionnaire & organizing the survey on proper lines.
    • Final surveys are made after the pilot study has been completed.
  • Census and sample survey:
    • Census survey deals with the investigation of entire population. Under this method the information is collected from each & every unit of the universe.
    • Money, material, time and labour required for carrying out a census survey are bound to be extremely large but its results are more accurate & reliable.
  • Experimental Method of Research:
    • It is a Scientific method of research and follows the norms of Lab experiments in education & other Social sciences.
    • It is futuristic in nature as it is always seeking something new to evaluate.
    • It is the process of building of new knowledge.

Basic Assumption of Experimental Method:

  • Experimental method is based on J. S. Mill՚s first Cannon that is Law of single Variable. The law reads as:
  • “If two situations are similar in every respect, and one element is added or subtracted from one but not the other, any difference that operation of that element added of subtracted.”

Process of Researching

Process of Researching
  • Variable:
    • Experimental method is based on ‘variable.’ A variable is a feature or aspect of an event, function, or process, which is being studied; the variables are of three types:
      • Experimental variable -An experiment is conducted in order to see the effect of a variable or treatment which is known as experimental variable.
      • Controlled variable -When the effectiveness of an experimental variable is examined by comparing with other variables is known as controlled variable.
      • Dependent variable -The basis on which the effectiveness of the experimental variable is established or studied is known as the dependent variable.
      • Intervening Variable -There are a number of abstract (invincible) variable working in educational experiment which intervene the effect of experimental variable or dependent variable e. g. attitudes, motivation. Learning processes etc.
    • Field investigation research- A field experiment is a research study in a realistic situation in which one or more independent variables are manipulated by the experimenter under as carefully controlled conditions as the situation will permit.

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