Method of Research for Paper 1 Unit II (Research Aptitude) as Per New 2020 Syllabus

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Research Aptitude: Types of Research

  • Action Research

  • Applied Research

  • Basic Research

  • Fundamental Research

    • Evaluation Research

    • Ex-post facto Research

    • Laboratory research

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Action Research

  • This is a recent classification. This type of research is conducted through direct action.

  • The actual study may consist of a number of phases, say, base-line survey, systematic action, periodical assessment, etc.

  • A good example of action research is a study of test marketing.

  • A base-line survey is initially conducted and the informants are identified; and this is followed by the distribution of the product under study, and then an assessment of survey.

Applied Research

  • In an applied research one solves certain problems employing well known and accepted theories and principles.

  • Most of the experimental research, case studies and inter-disciplinary research are essentially applied research. Applied research is helpful for basic research.

  • A research, the outcome of which has immediate application is also termed as applied research. Such a research is of practical use to current activity.

  • For example, research on social problems have immediate use. Applied research is concerned with actual life research such as research on increasing efficiency of a machine, increasing gain factor of production of a material, pollution control, preparing vaccination for a disease, etc. Obviously, they have immediate potential applications.

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Basic Research

  • Basic research is an investigation on basic principles and reasons for occurrence of a particular event or process or phenomenon.

  • It is also called theoretical research. Study or investigation of some natural phenomenon or relating to pure science are termed as basic research.

  • Basic researches sometimes may not lead to immediate use or application.

  • It is not concerned with solving any practical problems of immediate interest. But it is original or basic in character.

  • For example, suppose a theory is applicable to a system provided the system satisfies certain specific conditions.

Fundamental Research

  • Fundamental researches are original and investigative studies of a basic nature. The topic or area of investigation would be new and fresh investigation would be carried out to originate a new theory, making additional contribution to knowledge.

  • It may also throw additional light on the existing theory or body of knowledge. Its contribution, therefore, can be two-fold, developing a new theory and improving upon the existing theory.

  • Examples of Fundamental or Basic Research.

  • All Famous Theorems of Physics.

  • All Laws of Maths and science we studied from childhood Evaluation.

Evaluation Research

  • Evaluation research is a recent addition to the types of research.

  • It would be appropriate to call this category of research as a product of developmental programming which has been adopted on a very large scale in the recent years, more particularly after Second World War when most of the Third World Countries emerged on the developmental scene.

  • This type of research is primarily directed to evaluate the performance of the developmental projects and other economic programmes that have already been implemented.

  • The objective being to realistically assess the impact of any such programmes.

Ex-Post Facto Research

  • This is an empirical research and the researcher does not have any control over independent variables, because they have already been manifested ex-post factor research is systematic empirical inquiry in which the scientist does not have direct control of independent variables because their manifestations have already occurred or because they are inherently not manipuable.

  • Inferences about relations among variable are made, without direct intervention, from concomitant variation of independent and dependent variables.

  • This kind of research is based on a scientific and analytical examination of dependent and independent variables.

Laboratory Research

  • By definition, research of this type is confined to laboratory experiments alone.

  • The basic feature of such research is that there exists a possibility of exercising control independent variables and isolating their influences for plausible explanations.

  • A laboratory experiment is a research study in which the variance of all or nearly all of the possible influential independent variables not pertinent to the immediate problem of the investigation is kept at a minimum.

  • This type of research has a limited application in social sciences, as it is extremely difficult to study social variables in isolation of each other.

Laboratory Research

  • The fact finding inquires and the field surveys are main contents of descriptive research. The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present.

  • In social science and business research we quite often us the term ex post facto research for descriptive research studies.

  • In analytical research, on the other hand, the research has to use facts or information already available, and analyses these to make a critical evaluation of the material

Type of Research

Type of Research

Type of Research

Aptitude Research: Descriptive vs Analytical

  • The fact finding inquires and the field surveys are main contents of descriptive research.

  • The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present.

  • In social science and business research we quite often us the term ex post facto research for descriptive research studies.

  • In analytical research, on the other hand, the research has to use facts or information already available, and analyses these to make a critical evaluation of the material Quantitative.

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