Method of Logical Reasoning for Paper 1 Unit VI (Logical Reasoning) as Per New 2021 Syllabus

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Logical-Reasoning: Different Type of Pramanas

Title: Different Type of Pramanas

Pratyaksha Pramana

  • By this we mean the knowledge based through perception. It can be direct or indirect to any person.
    • Direct perception:
      • It takes place through our sensory organs directly. Here the knowledge takes place when it is in direct contact with the sensory organs.
    • Indirect perception:
      • The knowledge based upon memory.
  • For example, we all know how an apple looks like. This knowledge gets feed into our memory.

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Anumāna Pramana

  • Here the knowledge is gained not through any sense organs but through assumption. We assume knowledge of what we don՚t see from what we see.
  • For example, we can assume the physical or emotional pain when we see someone crying or we can relate fire with smell of smoke.

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Upamana Pramana

  • It is kind of knowledge we get by assumption of similarity between the different types of knowledge. It is basically based on comparison & not just only perception & assumption.
  • For example, a person knows four legged animal which barks it calls the dog. Therefore, when he goes to the jungle & see a similar looking animal he can relate that it՚s a wild dog which also has four legs & barks.
  • This knowledge is possible when there is an earlier similarity with a particular thing which helps the person to compare both the similar things.

Arthapatti Pramana:

  • By this we understand the knowledge which we get through the relation & its implication. It includes supposition, belief & presumption.
  • We get this kind of knowledge either what we have seen or heard & by pure assumption.
  • For example, if the healthy person says he does not sleep at night, with this supposition, belief, it is difficult to explain how the man can be healthy without sleeping.

Anupalabhdi Pramana

  • It is basically based on the apprehension of non-existing thing which is based on non-perception.
  • For example, if there are no students in the class, as we cannot see any student in the class at that time we conclude that there are no students in the class.

Shabda Pramana

  • This is mainly through verbal indication. We get lots of knowledge through verbal statements, symbols, text or words. We either say this or write. Verbal statement must have a valid cause for its information to be true.

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